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Quick Start Guides are available in and. Because the blades have zero pitch, they have very little drag, so it is very easy to move them through the air. Sérgio is HeliSimmer's editor and writer and one of the Three Grumpy Simmers, a YouTube series and Podcast produced together with YouTubers Bel Geode and NovaWing24, obviously dedicated to flight simulation.

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Set the view to however you like it, and assign it to Quick Look 1 by pressing Ctrl+Num Pad 1 i. This is where the anti-torque pedals come in. And there is the plan that with one Product Manager 1 installation it will be possible to manage a multitude of products...


RemoteFlight GLASS is our newest universal app for both iPad and iPhone. In this app you will enjoy a full-screen primary flight display PFD , dual radios, adf and transponder, RMI and other features to complete your flight experience, all in one app, crisp and clear across all devices.

I plan to add more features into the app as the time goes and the app is being offered for a special introductory price at this moment. RemoteFlight COCKPIT HD is full-featured, touch enabled cockpit panel replacement for almost any of your Flight Simulator aircraft. Optimized for new iPad retina display from the very beginning but will look just as good on normal iPad screen. Enjoy your scenery on full screen and let your iPad do the job displaying the gauges.

Customize your cockpit according to your preference, either for pure VFR or hard-core IFR training. RemoteFlight RADIO HD is the ultimate radio panel for iPad. All your favourite radio gauges in one place, beautifully drawn, animated and programmed with pilot's comfort in mind. Since all gauges don't fit on one screen you can now switch between different gauge layouts, and instantly get the instrument you need.

Use multi-touch for more precision or faster scrolling knob turning through frequencies. RemoteFlight RADIO HD aren't just our iPhone apps packed together into one. Enjoy it, whether flying online in an airliner, or in your IFR training with smaller aircraft. RemoteFlight MAP HD is an ideal companion for long haul flights, as well as a tool for those, who like to explore the world while flying. Dragable and zoomable vector map moves with the aircraft and key flight variables are displayed on side-panel, which you can hide.

You can choose from different types of maps, aircraft icons and units of measurement. Now you can sit back and relax, or chat with a stewardess, while still fully aware of the situation in cockpit thanks to iPad with RemoteFlight MAP HD. The title says it all, this gauge replaces generic autopilot panel and delivers features like HDG, VS, NAV, APR. All standard autopilot functions from FS9 and FSX default aircafts are available in this gauge.

RemoteFlight MAP is an ideal companion for long haul flights, as well as a tool for those, who like to explore the world while flying. Dragable and zoomable vector map moves with the aircraft and key flight variables are displayed on side-panel, which you can hide.

You can choose from different types of maps, aircraft icons and units of measurement. Now you can sit back and relax, or chat with a stewardess, while still fully aware of the situation in cockpit thanks to iPhone with RemoteFlight MAP. RemoteFlight COMM Panel is our first gauge in line, showcasing the basic ability of the concept and RemoteFlight ecosystem.

It replaces the radio panel of any Flight Simulator aircraft, and enables you to control communication radio using your iPhone or other iOS compatible device. Compatible with all aircrafts with a comm radio. Just as straightforward as our COMM Panel, but slightly more advanced and capable.

Designed and developed by Vlada Oupicky. Copyright © Inputwish s. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc.


manager crack download x plane 11

Updating Scenery in X-Plane 11 - manager crack download x plane 11


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It is not uncommon for a computer to output 50 fps while sitting on an empty runway, but drop down to, say, 30 fps when rendering lots of buildings, other aircraft, etc. Enjoy it, whether flying online in an airliner, or in your IFR training with smaller aircraft. From there, move your mouse around the map to highlight sections of the world and click on on the ones you would like to install. The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location. Typically, non-pressurized airplanes will climb comfortably at about 700 fpm if the plane is capable and descend at about 500 fpm.
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[X-Plane] Flight Factor A350 SID and STAR Tutorial for X-Plane 11
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The latest version will always be available. PDF manuals are available in , , and. Quick Start Guides are available in and. To use this manual, you can jump to a section by clicking its title in the table of contents on the side.

For a PDF version of this manual, use an HTML to PDF converter such as. If you would like to receive a free guide to many of the most important features of X-Plane, you can.

X-Plane is not a game, but an engineering tool that can be used to predict the flying qualities of fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft with incredible accuracy. Welcome to the world of props, jets, single- and multi-engine airplanes, as well as gliders, helicopters and VTOLs. Aircraft included range from the Sikorsky S—76 and Cessna 172 to the Space Shuttle and the B—52 Bomber. Additionally, some 2,000 additional aircraft models can be downloaded from the Internet and Google are good places to start looking , many of which are completely free.

Users can land at any of over 35,000 airports or test their mettle on aircraft carriers, oil rigs, frigates which pitch and roll with the waves , or helipads atop buildings. The situations that can be simulated are unbelievably diverse! Rain, snow, and clouds are available for an instrument flying challenge, and thermals are available for the gliders.

Actual weather conditions can be downloaded from the Internet, allowing users to fly in the weather that really exists at their current location! Users can fail instruments, engines, flight controls, control cables, antennae, landing gear, or any of dozens of other systems at any moment.

The instructor can alter the time of day, weather conditions, and failure status of hundreds of aircraft systems and components. Additionally, the instructor can relocate the aircraft to a location of his or her choice at any time.

Aircraft models are also extremely flexible, allowing users to easily create paint jobs, sounds, and instrument panels to modify any airplane you choose. X-Plane is used by world-leading defense contractors, air forces, aircraft manufacturers, and even space agencies for applications ranging from flight training to concept design and flight testing.

These customers serve as perhaps the most significant endorsement of the incredible capabilities of this simulator. It includes over 70 GB-worth of scenery covering essentially the entire world and over 15 aircraft, with thousands of planes available on the web. The DVDs or digital download contain everything needed to run X-Plane—there is nothing more that you need to buy. The stock installation includes the following aircraft: Cirrus Vision SF50 North American X—15 Beechcraft Baron 58 Boeing 747—400 and 747—100 Boeing 737—800 Lockheed SR—71 Cessna 172SP McDonnell Douglas KC—10 Extender Stinson L—5 Sentinel Beechcraft King Air C90B ASK—21 glider Boeing B—52G Stratofortress Lockheed C—130 Hercules Space Shuttle Orbiter McDonnell Douglas F—4 McDonnell Douglas MD—80 Sikorsky S—76 Columbia 400 Of course, the thousands of aircraft available on the Internet provide even greater variety.

This is because flight-training systems can only be certified as a complete package a software and hardware combination. However, the software available at X-Plane. The biggest difference is that the FAA-certified versions have custom aircraft files with larger instrument panels, which are set up to work with hardware radios like those found in the physical cockpits.

The FAA-certifiable version also has some of the purely fun stuff like space flight removed even though those situations are simulated accurately in X-Plane, just like the FAA-certified subsonic terrestrial flight. This system cannot be certified by the FAA or any other authority for logging flight training, due to the fact that it does not self-test for the presence of flight controls or a usable frame rate. This version is designed to replace Microsoft ESP.

The Pro USB key or digital download product key needs to be used for commercial purposes and FAA-approved simulators for flight training. Furthermore, the pro key allows you to interface with Garmin Real Simulator Units. The Professional USB Key or Digital Download can be purchased from X-Plane. USB key drivers for both Mac OS and Windows can be downloaded. The goal is to be in the air and flying within ten minutes of completing the installation while still learning the essentials of the simulator.

This chapter will gloss over a great deal of background information, and configuration of many non-essential options will be skipped entirely. Where the process differs between installing on Windows and Mac OS X, the differences have been noted. After getting off the ground initially, you may want to continue reading the full manual, or simply keep it for reference.

Detailed information on joystick configuration can be found in the chapter , and the chapter contains more on setting up and flying the aircraft. If you have purchased a digital download product key, download the from our web site. Launch that installer, then skip to step 3. Note that you can change the language or pick a different operating system for the install by clicking on the settings slider icon in the top right corner.

Be sure you are connected to the Internet at all times during your installation. Though it can be installed elsewhere, it is strongly recommended that it be placed on the Desktop so that it can be found in the future. For the purposes of this guide, we will assume it is installed there.

It is highly recommended that you leave the box for sending anonymous usage data checked. This allows Laminar Research to gather anonymous data to make updates to the simulator based on how you use it. Parts of the world that are currently selected will be a bright blue color as all continents are in Figure 2. Note that for regions where no scenery is installed, only oceans and airports will be visible.

If you are unsure what areas are currently selected, just click Select None to turn everything off as seen in Figure 2. From there, move your mouse around the map to highlight sections of the world and click on on the ones you would like to install. The installer will begin displaying its progress. Note that digital download time estimates are based on your initial network speed and real install times may vary significantly.

We strongly recommend that you install only a small bit of scenery now and add more later, as the entire scenery package takes nearly 60 GB of space and a long time to install. Scenery can be added or removed at any point in the future by re-running the installer.

If not, enter your product key when required. To avoid any possible problems, it is recommended that the flight controls be plugged directly into the machine rather than into a hub. Starting the simulator without this or a DVD in the drive will force it to run in demo mode only.

Thus if your net connection is good and your product key is not locked, you may never notice or need the product key again to fly. Follow the instructions or use the Skip buttons to complete it. In the Uncalibrated Joystick or Yoke box that appears, click the Open Joystick Calibration button then continue with the steps below.

Note that a mouse may be used to fly if neither a yoke or a joystick is available, though it will of course be unrealistic and cumbersome. Make sure to move all levers as well as the stick or yoke itself. Release the controls, press Next again and wait until the timer is up. Note that for many of the most popular flight controls, you will be able to refer to the labeled image on the left if you are unsure which button is being assigned. If at any time you need to return to the joystick screen, you can access it by clicking on the settings icon in the top right corner of the screen and going to the Joystick section.

From here you can choose to quit, resume your last flight, start a new flight, load a saved flight, or visit Flight School for tutorials. Otherwise, to set up a new, custom flight, click the New Flight option to go to the Flight Configuration screen. You can narrow down your options by using the drop down menus at the top of the screen or the search bar. Click on the star in the corner of the aircraft box to mark it as a favorite, and quickly find it next time at the top of the list.

You can specify which runway or ramp to start on by clicking the Customize button. Drag the slider in the Weather box to change the cloud and precipitation settings between 8 different presets. Adjust the time of day the same way. See the section for detailed explanations of the Customize screen options for each aspect of the flight.

There will be an Update X-Plane button if an update is available. A good rule of thumb is that any machine built in the last 18 to 24 months will probably be able to run the simulator acceptably. Computers up to about 36 months old may be fine if they were top-of-the-line machines when manufactured. Dual-core CPUs slower than 3 GHz should try the demo before purchasing. With that in mind, developers have used Ubuntu 14. We absolutely do not support the fully open source drivers for AMD and NVIDIA.

Display Hardware X-Plane can display on any screen, with resolutions ranging from 1,024 × 768 pixels to 9,999 × 9,999 pixels. X-Plane allows the use of any number of screens to depict anything you like. Many modern graphics cards or technology such as a video splitter like the can be used to drive multiple forward visuals with one machine.

Essentially any modern, discrete i. On many systems the required graphics drivers will already be installed. Many graphics card companies provide software that can automatically detect when a new driver is available and help keep you up to date. Updating Graphics Drivers in Windows Some Windows-based computers are operating with drivers that are out of date or that do not currently support OpenGL caused by using the default Windows drivers rather than those of the manufacturer.

If you conclude that your graphics drivers need to be updated, the following general steps should guide you through the process. For example, to see your video card, tap or click Display adapters, and then double-tap or double-click the video card name.

You might be asked for an admin password or to confirm your choice. So which joystick should a user purchase? Most USB joysticks and yokes made in the last 10 years or so will work with X-Plane, but, as with most things in life, you get what you pay for. In our experience the cheaper hardware typically does not last as long or work as well as more moderately priced equipment. This covers nearly all the controllers manufactured in the last ten years, but if you have a non-USB device, an adapter will be needed to change it to a USB input.

Joysticks Joysticks typically provide pitch, roll, and throttle control, as well as a few buttons that can be programmed to do different things.

For example, you may program one button to raise and lower the landing gear, and two additional buttons to raise the flaps and lower them. Also, some joysticks can have their handle twisted left and right to control yaw movement. If the joystick being used does not offer yaw control, you will probably want a set of rudder pedals to provide realistic yaw control in the airplane.

A joystick will be best for flying fighter or sport airplanes, or planes made by companies like Airbus, Cirrus, or Lancair, for the simple reason that those planes, in reality, are controlled with joysticks! Yokes A yoke consists of a steering wheel-like control that rotates left and right and also slides back and forth. These are the best option for users primarily interested in flying older-style general aviation planes, business jets, and non-Airbus airliners, since these planes are flown with yokes in reality.

Yokes are typically clamped to a desk for stability. They may have a built-in throttle quadrant, which will allows for independent control of the propeller, throttle, and mixture for a single propeller engine. Also, note that yokes do not control yaw movement they do not twist left and right for yaw control like some joysticks , so rudder pedals are required for realistic yaw control. The pedals also control the brakes to help the airplane stop or turn sharply while on the ground.

Push the top of the left or right pedal to activate the brakes on that side of the plane. This auto-rudder function, however, is not smart enough to take off or land properly in a crosswind, slip, or do various other things that rudders might be used for.

For this reason, rudder pedals or at least a twisting joystick are highly recommended. Please note that, when flying a helicopter, pedals must be used for the anti-torque controls—this can not be assigned to keyboard commands, simply because it is not practical to try to use the keyboard to fly. Other Considerations For added realism in certain situations, you may want an independent throttle quadrant. Normally, this would be set up to control the throttle, propeller, and mixture controls for each engine on a twin-engine airplane.

This controller can also be used to control throttle and condition fuel cutoff for jet engines, allowing independent control of jet aircraft with up to three engines.

A multi-engine throttle quadrant is recommended for users interested in realistically flying airplanes with more than one engine. To purchase joysticks or other equipment, check out the , , or websites. Each of the sites allows users to browse the available products and find where to buy them. Also, feel free to ask your questions on the.

If the X-System window does appear automatically, skip to step 4. You can change the language or pick a different operating system for the install by clicking on the settings slider icon in the top right corner. Note that if the buttons at the bottom of the X-System screen are not visible, then the system is probably running at a minimal resolution like 800×600. Though it can be installed elsewhere by clicking the Change Destination button , it is strongly recommended that it be placed on the Desktop so that the folder can be found in the future, and so it has correct permission settings.

When an acceptable location has been selected, click Continue. Parts of the world that are currently selected will be a bright blue color as all tiles are in Figure 3.

If you are unsure what areas are currently selected, just click Select None to turn everything off as seen in Figure 3. From there, move your mouse around the map to highlight sections of the world and click on on the ones you would like to install. Note that for regions where no scenery is installed, only oceans and airports will be visible. When the installer prompts you to do so, remove the current disc and insert the next. We recommend installing a small amount of scenery at first.

Installing the complete scenery package will consume about 75 GB of hard drive space, and doing so will take between five and six and a half hours. At any point in the future, scenery can be added or removed by inserting Disc 1 and re-running the installer. Special Considerations for Mac Users By default, Mac OS X is set to automatically back up the entire hard drive using Time Machine.

Most people would prefer not to have this backed up, due to the fact that it requires a significant amount of space on the backup disk for something already backed up to DVDs or online, no less and the fact that it takes a great deal of time to complete the backup. For this reason, it is recommended that users switch to the Basic theme when running X-Plane.

Download the from our web site. Enter your digital download product key in the boxes on the following screen then click the Continue button. Though it can be installed elsewhere by clicking the Change Destination button , it is strongly recommended that it be left on the Desktop so that the folder can be found in the future and all permissions are correct.

It is highly recommended that you leave the box for sending anonymous usage data checked. This allows Laminar Research to gather anonymous data to make updates to the simulator based on how you use it. Click Continue once again. Parts of the world that are currently selected will be a bright blue color as all tiles are in Figure 3. If you are unsure what areas are currently selected, just click Select None to turn everything off as seen in Figure 3.

From there, move your mouse around the map to highlight sections of the world and click on on the ones you would like to install. Note that for regions where no scenery is installed, only oceans and airports will be visible. Note that digital download time estimates are based on your initial network speed and real install times may vary significantly. Scenery can be added or removed at any point in the future by re-running the installer.

Enter your digital download product key if necessary and proceed just like in step 6 above. We use this information only to verify your product key has not been stolen. We do not sell or share this information with anyone else.

X-Plane digital download product keys are like credit card numbers: the key itself authorizes you to get X-Plane, and each user has a different key. Just like credit cards, you should not share your product key with anyone else. If you need to contact Laminar Research customer support, we will only require the last eight digits of your product key; you do not need to send your full product key to anyone, including Laminar Research. If someone manages to steal your product key, piracy is prevented by fraud detection; our servers will see your key being used in a pattern that looks like multiple people e.

Downloading the product repeatedly may appear to be piracy and may also cause your key to be locked. You can contact if you experience problems with your digital download product key. If you do not want to update to the latest version, you need to make your own backup of X-Plane; re-installing the product will get the latest version.

In Mac OS, right-click on the X-Plane. To avoid any possible problems, it is recommended that the flight controls be plugged directly into the machine rather than into a hub. Starting the simulator without this or a DVD in the drive will force it to run in demo mode only. Thus if your net connection is good and your product key is not locked, you may never notice or need the product key again to fly.

These include downloading the latest free update giving you the latest set of features available , setting up flight controls, and tuning the performance of the simulator both in terms of graphics quality and frame rate. To access the menu bar, move the mouse pointer to the top of the screen.

When the mouse is within a centimeter or so of the top edge of the screen, the menu bar will appear. By default the Esc key will also display the menu. Some of the key functions of the simulator are accessed through small icons on the right side of the menu bar however. From left to right, clicking the icons will: pause the simulator, open Flight Configuration, show the ATC window, show the map, open Settings, and open a help webpage. Keep in mind you can use keyboard shortcuts to access many of these features as well.

For example, opening the View menu will display the list of available views on the left side of the drop down menu, with the list of corresponding keyboard shortcuts on the right. You can adjust almost all aspects of how the simulator runs by going to the Settings screen.

Many other helpful options, such as the language and warnings, can be found in the General section. These shortcuts are particularly important when using the mouse to fly. Also note that most instruments and controls inside the cockpit are interactive, meaning that the mouse can be used to alter switches, set frequencies, manipulate the throttle s , change the trim, etc.

Throughout this section we will refer to any input device as a joystick; the instructions apply to yokes, throttle quadrants, and rudders also. The first time a joystick or yoke is plugged in, the program can automatically take you to the joystick settings screen to configure the device. If you selected No in the Joystick Quick-Config box, move the mouse to the top of the screen and click the settings icon, then Joystick, and continue with the steps below.

This will open the dialog box allowing you to configure and calibrate the flight controls. As this is done, one of the red bars will move vigorously for each input that is actuated.

Note that if you are using a trim wheel, you may have to roll the wheel continuously to see which axis it is mapped to. Thus, when the stick is rolled left and right only one bar will move a substantial amount; when it is pushed back and forth it will be a different bar. Move your joystick through the full range of motion for each axes, and each slider through its entire range as well.

Move your joystick or yoke forward and back for pitch. Once all the red bars have changed to blue, click on the Next button. Let go of the controls and press the Next button to begin centering the controls and setting the nullzone. Simply use the drop down menu to select the appropriate axis type.

One of the bars should move as you do so. Click the drop-down menu next to it and set it to pitch. The bar that moves should be set to roll. The bar that moves should be set to yaw. If you are using rudder pedals, slide them forward and backward and set the bar that moves then to yaw. Additionally, only when using rudder pedals, press the left pedal down with your toes.

The bar that moves should be set to left toe brake. Do the same for the right pedal, and set that bar to right toe brake.

Set this bar to throttle. Note: Any remaining bar if applicable which is not actively controlled by your hardware needs to be set to none. Click on a number to highlight the line in the list on the right side of the screen. You can also press the button on the joystick and seeing which number in the list lights up.

Assign a function to a hat switch by picking from the drop down menu. Assign a function to a button or a two-direction switch by clicking the Edit button and scrolling through the list of commands, or by typing a key term in the search bar, as in Figure 4.

Close the Joystick window and the settings will be saved to preferences. The three sliders in this window control the response curves for the pitch, roll, and yaw axes of the joystick. As these sliders are moved to the right the response becomes curved. Keep in mind, however, that in this case, the remaining 90% of the control surface deflection must take place in the last 50% of joystick movement. Thus, the controls will be dampened for the first half or so of their travel and then become hyper-sensitive for the remainder of their throw.

This gives the user plenty of fine-tune control near the center of the flight control envelope to hold altitude and roll precisely, but still allows for full control authority at the extremes. Try flying with the sliders in various different positions to see what setting works best. To modify the stability of the aircraft, press the Stability Augmentation button.

If these sliders are all the way to the left, then there is no stability augmentation of the aircraft. In other words, the simulator will try to make the plane easier to fly by adding control inputs for the user. Configuring Keyboard Shortcuts X-Plane has been designed to be both extremely flexible and easily usable.

For this reason, most of the keys on the keyboard do something. To see which keys are tied to which functions, open the settings by moving the mouse to the top of the screen, clicking the settings icon, and clicking on Keyboard. Here you can look at the functions assigned to the keys of the keyboard. You can use the buttons on the left side to narrow down the list, or use the plus and minus symbols to change how many items are shown from the list of functions.

Functions are classified into a number of categories operation, engines, ignition, etc. The description of the function is on the left while the button assigned to it is on the right. To change the key a command is bound to, type in the box on the right or use the +. Use the - to delete a key assignment. Note that it is not necessary to try and remember all of the keyboard shortcuts.

Instead, many of them are shown in the menus when flying. For example, while in flight, move the mouse to the top of the screen and click the View menu and a subcategory. This means you can now specify different button or axis assignments for the same joystick and switch between them from within X-Plane. Any time you create another profile, all current assignments will be copied to the new profile for you to then adjust as desired. To delete profiles and assign them to individual or groups of aircraft, click the Manage Profiles button next to the Active Profile dropdown.

Click on the minus sign - icon next to a profile name to delete it. Double click on a profile name to edit it. You can also add a new profile here and then return to the joystick or keyboard settings screens to change its assignments. Assign profiles to aircraft in the Associated Aircraft column on the right side of this window. Or you can click the drop down next to individual aircraft to change profile assignments one by one.

Profiles will also be assigned automatically when you change from one profile to another while a flight is in progress. Configuring the Rendering Options X-Plane is a very advanced simulator that has been designed for use across a broad range of computers with varying specifications. Each time the computer runs through the program it advances the aircraft and recalculates the images that are seen cloud formations, scenery, aircraft instruments, other aircraft, etc.

Thus, generally speaking, the higher the rendering options are set, the lower the performance and frame rate achieved. This is the current frame rate, given in frames per second fps. FPS highlighted Figure 4. It is not uncommon for a computer to output 50 fps while sitting on an empty runway, but drop down to, say, 30 fps when rendering lots of buildings, other aircraft, etc.

Refer to the following to determine the significance of this number. Setting the Rendering Options The Graphics screen is used to configure the level of detail in the simulator. This window can be found by moving the mouse to the top of the screen, clicking on the settings icon, and clicking Graphics. The rendering options sliders are organized with settings that depend primarily on CPU on the right, and GPU-heavy options on the left.

The Visual Effects slider adjusts the quality of the visual effects, such as shadows and light reflection and is dependent on the quality of your graphics card. Textures are the image-maps that are draped over the terrain and aircraft to make them look realistic. If it is set too low, the runway and terrain will look blurry and blocky. While this will not look very good, it will use very little video memory VRAM , so a high frame rate will be more easily achievable.

The Antialiasing slider is used to smooth the edges of the objects drawn in the simulator. These jaggies may be somewhat eliminated by turning on anti-aliasing. Thus, it is similar to using a higher screen resolution; running at a resolution of 2048×2048 without anti-aliasing is similar to running at 1024×1024 and 4× anti-aliasing.

Both situations tax the video card with virtually no increase in CPU use. The Number of Objects slider will adjust how many 3D objects are drawn in the world, such as trees, buildings, and static aircraft. If you have a powerful CPU you can set this to high or even maximum without affecting your frame rate too much, and the highest settings will ensure that you see all there is to see around an airport.

Check the Draw parked aircraft box if you would like to see static aircraft at airports. Checking the Draw shadows on scenery box will also add detail that older, slower cards may not be able to handle. We recommend putting the Texture Quality slider on its lowest setting, exiting the sim, restarting it, and noting the frame rate. Keep an eye on the message below the slider that shows how many megabytes of textures are loaded. From there, raise the slider up one level and repeat until the frame rate decreases.

Finally, you can enable the TrackIR, TrackHat or Matrox TripleHead2Go with the checkboxes at the bottom of the window. We recommend being very methodical and following these instructions in order, checking the frame rate after each major change until you find settings that give an acceptable frame rate. Ensure the frame rate is visible on screen per the instructions in above. Your CPU may be much more powerful relative to your graphics card, or vice versa. In such a case, you could hypothetically turn the CPU-heavy features up much higher than the GPU-heavy features or vice versa.

Likewise, the right half of the Rendering Options is the CPU-heavy features: world objects, reflection detail, and parked aircraft. To find the best compromise between performance and visual quality for your specific machine, start with all sliders at their minimums, and all checkboxes off.

From there, turn up the settings in the order detailed below. Tuning CPU Settings Go to a big airport with lots of 3-D objects, like KSEA.

Enable the parked aircraft, and start turning up the number of world objects and reflection detail. Having found the number of objects you want to use, start bringing the texture quality slider up. Access this by going to the Flight Configuration screen and clicking the AI Aircraft button. Configuring the Monitor At the bottom of the Graphics section of the Settings screen are the options for configuring the monitor. Use the drop down menu to switch between full screen and windowed mode, or the Instructor Operating Station requires at least two monitors.

The lowest available resolution is 1024×768. Increasing the resolution may also cause a drop in frame rate if your graphics card is not powerful enough. This is especially helpful for those with large, high resolution monitors. Set this to 150% or more to increase the size of the text and interface throughout the simulator. Expand the Visuals Settings to set the default view or turn off windshield effects such as cracked glass after a crash.

You can adjust the Lateral field of view in the Field of view section. This changes the extent of the observable scenery that is onscreen. Widescreen monitors those with an aspect ratio of, say, 16:10 or 16:9 and a resolution of, say, 1920×1080, 1600×900, and so on may benefit from a wider field of view 60° or more. Older monitors with a 4:3 aspect ratio corresponding to a resolution like 1024×768 or 1600×1200 probably want to stick to a 45° field of view.

If you are using a multimonitor set up, expand the Visual Offsets section to make adjustments for monitor bezels or wraparound monitors.

See the section for more details. Configuring the Sound To configure the sound, move your mouse to the top of the screen and click on the settings icon, then Sound. On the right side, ATC sound and text can be turned off or on. By default, all sounds are enabled, with volumes set at 100% sliders fully to the right. This window will also check the status of speech synthesis software used for ATIS. If the software is not installed on Windows,.

Setting the Language To change the language used throughout X-Plane, move your mouse to the top of the screen causing the menu to appear and click the Settings icon. We regularly release new updates to the simulator that contain feature enhancements, bug fixes, stability improvements, aircraft and resource updates, flight model improvements, and even new feature additions.

This means that if you purchase the Version 11 discs, you will get the Version 11. Of course, you do not have to take advantage of these updates, but it is recommended that you do so. There will be an Update X-Plane button if an update is available.

This means that they may create incompatibilities or create other problems that would not be experienced in the stable releases. The advantage to doing so is that these users get access to the latest enhancements to the software. The downside is that there is a greater risk of encountering problems with third-party models or other general bugs. WARNING: if you have your own modifications, do not pick overwrite for your own mods. This is only an issue if you have add-ons that modify x-Plane system files.

If your computer is not running a firewall, of course, this is of no concern to you. Expanding X-Plane X-Plane can be modified in a number of ways. You can add aircraft or custom scenery, or you can download plug-ins that can radically alter the functionality of the simulator. The has a wealth of information on creating both scenery and aircraft, and the has documentation on developing plug-ins.

The will prove especially useful for users creating aircraft files, while those developing scenery should keep the handy. Adding Aircraft Perhaps the easiest place to find new aircraft is on.

Other noted sources of high-quality, payware aircraft are the folks at , as well as Jason Chandler of. When downloading a custom aircraft, it will typically be in a compressed folder usually a ZIP file that contains the airplane and all its various paint jobs, airfoils, custom sounds, and instrument panels.

Once the compressed folder is downloaded, you should be able to double-click on it to open or expand it on Macintosh, Windows, or Linux computers. From here, the folder can be dragged and dropped into the Aircraft folder. When you start a new flight, your aircraft will show up in the aircraft grid of the Flight Configuration screen.

Bind them to a button or key according to the instructions in. Of course, users can also upload their own aircraft to and similar sites, after creating a custom airplane per the. We place no copyright restrictions of any sort on aircraft made by users with Plane Maker, and these custom aircraft may be uploaded and shared or sold at will. Adding Scenery Custom scenery packages, too, can be found on the , among other places.

These may be downloaded and installed at will. This file determines the order in which scenery packs load, with files at the top of the list overriding those lower down. Additionally, the utility may be helpful for managing a large amount of custom scenery or downloaded objects. The Airport Scenery Gateway The is a community-driven effort to collect airport data into a global airport database. The latest Gateway scenery will be provided automatically via updates.

You may also add scenery from the Airport Scenery Gateway before that happens, but note that if you do so, it will suppress any later Global Airport updates to that same airport. For additional information or to register as an artist, check out the homepage or the. People write plug-ins to do all sorts of interesting things like hang weights on the dashboard that move around accurately, run little tugs around to push your airplane on the ground, or draw interesting terrain visualization systems, among other things.

Once again, is a good place to go to find various plug-ins and other things to tweak your copy of X-Plane. For information on creating custom plug-ins, see the. Flight in X-Plane X-Plane, of course, is a flight simulator. In addition, you might take advantage of a number of features of the simulator either before or during a flight. Here you can pick from four options to get flying. You can also quit from this screen, or adjust your settings.

Load Saved Flight will allow you to load one of your saved replay or situation files see the section for more details. Click the button to be taken to the Flight Configuration screen. Note that if you return to the Main Menu found under the File menu after starting any flight, the name of some options will have changed slightly. You can Resume Current Flight or choose Flight Configuration to modify your current flight or create a new one.

You will also have the option to Save Flight in addition to Load Saved Flight and access to Flight School. Picking and Customizing an Aircraft flight configuration Figure 5. You can narrow down your options by using the drop down menus at the top of the screen or the search bar. Click on the star in the corner of the aircraft box to mark it as a favorite, and quickly find it next time at the top of the list.

It can place your aircraft on a runway or apron, or it can start you in the air on a 3 or 10 nautical mile approach to a runway.

This screen is divided into three parts. In the top left is a larger version of the airport selection on the previous screen. Note that if the aircraft is moved to an area that does not have any scenery installed, it will end up on a runway which is hovering above the ocean down below.

Other Ways to Choose a Location You do not have to choose a location for your flight using the list of world airports. You can also choose from a number of special starts in this screen, such as a carrier cat shot, oil rig approach, or the space shuttle landings.

The first, and easiest, way to set the weather is using the slider on the Flight Configuration screen. Eight options are available, with the cloud cover getting increasingly heavy as you drag the slider right.

Click the Customize button for much finer control over the weather. It may be easiest to start with the closest type of weather you want with the slider, then go to the Weather Settings screen to tweak the individual settings.

Advanced Weather Customization The Weather Settings screen allows you to specify the exact weather you want. The largest portion of the screen is for the weather map, which displays the clouds and wind layers in relation to each other.

This puts no wind or cloud layers in the weather map, and the visibility slider is set to 25 statute miles. These are extremely low instrument conditions, with basically zero ceiling and visibility. Note that each layer you add will be placed above any existing layers of the same type, so it will be most efficient to design your weather from the bottom up. The weather map is very tactile—you can grab the icons and drag them up and down, and some cloud types allow you to adjust their edges to make them wider or narrower.

Click on a layer to adjust additional settings in the Layer Properties column on the left side of the window. You can adjust the heights of the clouds by using the sliders, or typing in the boxes for the most precision.

These heights are measured in feet above mean sea level MSL. The altitude, speed, turbulence, gust, and shear of wind layers can also be adjusted by dragging the sliders or specifying a number in the boxes. You can click and drag near the edge of the direction circle to make the wind come from that direction. In the right side of the Weather Settings window are the setting sliders for atmospheric conditions.

Here you can also change the units of measure, such as switch the temperature from Fahrenheit to Celsius for example. The Set visibility drop down and slider adjusts what its name suggests, measured in statute miles for atmospheric visibility or feet for runway visual range. The precipitation slider sets the level of precipitation. Depending on the temperature around the airplane and in the clouds where it is formed, this will be in the form of rain, hail, or snow. The storminess slider adjusts the tendency for convective activity.

The weather radar map in the lower-right of the window shows where the cells are forming. Flying into these cells results in heavy precipitation and extreme turbulence. The turbulence is great enough that in reality, airplanes can fly into thunderstorms in one piece and come out in many smaller pieces. Taking helicopters into these icing and thunderstorm situations is interesting because their very high wing-loading on their rotor and the fact that the rotor is free teetering causes them to have a pretty smooth ride in turbulence.

They are still not indestructible, though, and they are subject to icing on their blades just like an airplane. Next, the temperature at the nearest airport and the barometric pressure air pressure at sea level can be set. These controls are mainly used when flying gliders. Try setting the wind at 30 knots or better at a right angle to a mountain range and running along the upwind side of the mountain range in a glider—you should be able to stay aloft on the climbing air if you stay pretty low.

Drift to the downwind side of the mountain, though, and an unstoppable descent is assured! Changing the wave height, in feet, will also modify the wave length and speed. To enable this, first open the Customize Weather screen from Flight Configuration. If you want to download weather at some other time, you can always come back to this window and press the Refresh button. This section will provide a basic explanation of how to set up your own custom weather text files, or see.

For custom weather, create a custom text file that list the reporting station name as MDEG. Then add the longitude, latitude, and elevation.

Next, enter the METAR report you want to apply at that location. For example, if we wanted to change the weather for the South Carolina area, we would specify the area in the METAR.

X-Plane has 16 weather envelopes spanning the area around the flying region. Each bucket is about 1. To use this custom METAR file in the simulator, go to the customize weather screen and pick From custom METAR. This file will load custom winds at 10,000 ft and 34,000 ft into X-Plane, so you have winds aloft for both light planes and airliners, with interpolation for turboprops that fly in between.

Each of the numbers after the latitude represent the direction, speed and temperature. Add additional columns of wind information to correspond to specific altitudes: 3000, 6000, 9000, 12000, 18000, 24000, 30000, 34000, and 39,000 feet. Note that you may leave a lower altitude column blank if the location is already above that altitude, but you must enter a full winds-aloft report for all of the altitudes. At 3000 feet, the wind direction is 290, with a speed of 10 knots.

At 6000 feet, the wind direction is 310, speed 17 knots, and a temperature of +14 degrees Celsius. Continue on in this manner when you are adding custom winds or interpreting the report. If changes are made to the custom METAR. Setting the Date and Time The simplest way of setting the time of day is by dragging the slider in the bottom right of the Flight Configuration screen.

Time is given as both local and Zulu time that is, Greenwich Mean Time or UTC. Click on the Customize button to change the date, time or GMT offset by using the drop down menus. For instance, there are fewer daylight hours in December than in June in North America, as in the real world. The Cessna 172 is an excellent choice in this regard, a fact attested to by the millions of real-world pilots trained in this model.

If you are not using flight controls, you will have to fly with the mouse. In this case, there will be a small white plus sign + in the center of the screen.

This means that the mouse is free to move anywhere without impacting the flight controls. To grab the stick and thus take control of the aircraft , click the left mouse button in the vicinity of the little white cross and a white box will appear around the cross.

The mouse button should not be held down, only clicked once to turn the box on i. Thus, moving the mouse directly below the cross will command some up elevator causing the plane to climb and will not impose any roll commands which should keep the aircraft from changing its bank.

Likewise, keeping the mouse lined up exactly with the cross but deflecting it to the right a bit will cause the plane to bank to the right without altering its pitch.

Flight School If you are not familiar with flying an airplane or using X-Plane, check out Flight School for tutorials on many basic aviation concepts. Tutorials range from how to take off and land in the default Cessna 172 SP, to how to use a VOR to navigate. To access Flight School, go to the main menu found under the File menu and click the button for Flight School. Continue to advance the throttle and be ready to feed in some right yaw using the right rudder or the twist on the joystick, if applicable as the airplane accelerates.

The tendency to turn to the left is normal in single engine aircraft due to the turn of the propeller. Normally, the pilot will rotate that is, apply some up elevator by pulling back on the yoke or stick at about 60 knots in the Cessna 172.

Once the aircraft leaves the ground, push the stick forward a bit to momentarily level off and allow the airplane to build speed. Once the craft reaches 80 knots or so, pull back gently on the stick again and resume climbing. Building airspeed before climbing this way will help keep the plane from stalling. If the impact is only hard enough to damage the airplane without necessarily destroying it, the aircraft will just sit there and smoke.

If this happens, you will need to open the Flight Configuration screen and start a new flight. If only it were so easy in the real world! Landing To land the plane you must first locate an airport and runway. Make sure the Starts button is toggled to Runway, then pick you desired distance from the drop down menu.

To begin the descent in the Cessna 172, gradually lower the throttle to about 20% power and pitch the nose down between —3 and —5 degrees. The goal is to be around stalling speed about 50 knots in the Cessna right at touchdown for the smoothest landing.

As you near the runway, cut the throttle completely and pitch the nose up about 7 degrees to gently land the plane. Apply the brakes to come to a complete stop. To operate a button, just click it and release. To operate a switch, do the same to change its position. For example, to bring the landing gear down on planes that are able to , click with the landing gear switch. Of course, this control will look different in different aircraft.

Keep in mind that the g key could also be used or a joystick button could be assigned to toggle the gear. Click repeatedly for greater movements. To easily see the controls within the cockpit that the mouse can operate, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show clickable regions in the cockpit. This will draw green boxes around the areas of the instrument panel that can be manipulated with the mouse.

This will allow you to see the whole of the cockpit. Alternatively, you can use the up, down, left, and right arrow keys to move your view around in the 2-D panel view.

To get a quick description of the instruments in the panel, open the Settings and go to the General tab. Under the Flight Model section, check the box labeled Show instrument instructions in the cockpit. A Note on Radio Tuning Avionics in most airplanes utilize twin concentric knobs that allow the pilot to tune the radio. For example, there will typically be a large knob on the surface of the radio, with a smaller knob sticking out from the large one.

For example, imagine that the COM1 radio the communications radio number 1 needed to be tuned to 128. In a real aircraft, the pilot would turn the big, lower knob until 128 was visible in the window, then turn the small, upper knob until 00 was visible. X-Plane is set up the same way. When hovering the mouse in the vicinity of one of the radio tuning knobs, two counter-clockwise arrows will appear on the left of the knob and two clockwise arrows on the right.

The arrows closest to the knob are physically smaller than those on the outside-these adjust the decimal portion of the frequency. The outside arrows are larger and adjust the integer portion of the frequency. Using the Views You can change your view of the aircraft using the View menu, or by using the keyboard shortcuts listed on the right side of each option in the View menu.

Using the menus or the appropriate keyboard shortcuts, you can select a view or modify your current view. The controls for view selection affect the type of view that you are using. For instance, you may choose to be in the cockpit, looking forward at the instrument panel, or you may select an external view, perhaps where you look at your aircraft from the point of view of the nearest air traffic control tower. View selection controls are described in. After selecting some view, you can modify the view using translation moving left, right, fore, or aft , rotation spinning about your point of focus , or zoom changing the angle of view.

The default keyboard shortcuts for these effects are listed in. This mode leaves the mouse free to click on things in the cockpit without affecting where you are looking. In 3-D cockpit mode, you can use the keyboard shortcuts or the View menu itself to change where you are looking. These are described in. Uses translation and rotation commands listed in to move and look around. View Selection Controls for external views Linear spot Shift+1 i. Still spot Shift+2 i. On the runway Shift+3 i.

Circling the aircraft Shift+4 i. Tower view Shift+5 i. Track fired weapon Shift+7 i. Then, in the future, whenever you press that key on the keyboard or button on your joystick, as the case may be , you can go right back to that view again. Note that the Quick Looks are aircraft-specific preferences. This means that your Quick Look views in the Cessna 172 do not interfere with your views in the King Air, and so on. This can take some time to set up and if you do it often, it can get tedious.

The solution, then, is to set up a Quick Look. Set the view to however you like it, and assign it to Quick Look 1 by pressing Ctrl+Num Pad 1 i. Note that the Num Lock must be on in order to do this. Now, no matter how your view changes, when you press the shortcut for Quick Look 1 by default, Num Pad 1 , your head position, orientation and zoom goes right back to your memorized view of the throttle quadrant.

When pressing the Ctrl key along with any of those numbers, you will store your current view to be recalled later by that number key. Thus, to set a view for Quick Look 3, you would get the view to the way you like it, then press Ctrl + Num Pad 3, and to go back to that view, you would press Num Pad 3.

Quick Looks are not just for 3-D cockpit mode, either. They work in all aircraft-relative views, such as 3-D Cockpit, Ridealong, Chase, Circle, and Forward with HUD. The AI system can handle all aspects of flying your aircraft, including taxiing around the airport, take off and landing.

Click Aircraft, then select A. Furthermore, this is an excellent way to practice tuning radios. In addition, you can have the AI control your view by opening the Aircraft menu and selecting A. Getting Quick Help If you need help with a certain aspect of the simulator, open the menu and check for a question mark icon in the right corner.

Click on the icon to open a webpage with additional information and instructions about the screen you are currently viewing. Saving and Sharing Your Flight X-Plane offers a number of ways to save and share a particular flight. In each case, you can save the flight and replay it yourself, or you can upload it to the Internet for others to see. It also includes information on the environmental conditions of the flight, including cloud conditions, temperature, and time of day.

Furthermore, any other aircraft you have loaded will also be noted. This is especially useful for quickly loading and practicing a specific type of approach, or for recreating a specific combat situation. To load a situation in order to fly it again, open the File menu and click Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Situations button.

If you do not see your file in any of the lists, you can also click the Open Saved Flight Not Listed button to open a file browser window to navigate to the file, wherever you saved it.

This file is only viewable in X-Plane, but because it is so complete, you can change your view as much as you like while replaying. To load a replay, open the File menu as before, but select Load Flight. You can narrow down the list of all the saved files by clicking on the Replay button. If you do not see your file in any of the lists, you can also click the Open Saved Flight Not Listed button to open a file browser window to navigate to the file, wherever you saved it. Creating a Movie In addition to file types readable only by X-Plane, you can also create more universally readable movies.

The downside to these movie files is that they record exactly what you see when you record them, and they do not record sound. After recording the movie, you can edit it in a program like iMovie installed on new Macs by default or Windows Live Movie Maker. In choosing a frame rate, know that videos produced at 15 frames per second will look jittery. Film and television use 24 and 30 frames per second, respectively.

Your movie file can be played back on virtually any computer. If the appropriate software is not installed on the computer you want to play the file on, you can get a free cross-platform multimedia player from the. Capturing a Screenshot The final method of saving or sharing your flight is to take a simple screenshot.

Visualizing and Replaying Your Flight In addition to being able to save replays for later playback as described in the section above , you can visualize your flight up to your present location in a few different ways.

Viewing the Path Taken by Your Aircraft threedpath Figure 5. Cycling it again will give a semi-transparent black bar extending from the flight path to the ground seen in. Cycling the path once more will turn off the flight path lines.

The flight path will also be reset whenever you load an aircraft or a location. Using the Built-In Replay You can replay your flight, from the last time you loaded an aircraft or a location up to your current location, by toggling the replay mode on.

Additionally, you can click the shuttle slider and drag it to quickly jump around in the playback. Replaying a Flight from a Flight Data Recorder FDR The final method of visualizing a flight is to load information from a flight data recorder FDR.

This is useful primarily in accident investigation and re-creation. Then you will be greeted with the standard replay shuttle buttons with which you can replay the flight. The FDR file specification and information on each field can be found in the. Viewing the Behind-the-Scenes Flight Model X-Plane models flight by breaking an aircraft down into a number of little pieces and finding the forces acting on each piece.

With some wind and turbulence turned on in the Weather screen, you can even see the pseudo-random velocity vector flow field around the airplane.

The velocity vectors seen are the actual vectors interacting with the aircraft, and the force vectors the green lines coming off the plane are the actual forces acting on the plane—nothing is just for show here. The red bars, likewise, represent drag, and the yellow bars represent lift from vertical control surfaces. The color of the vectors represent airspeed, where yellow is the middle of the spectrum, and a 10% speed change takes us to red 10% lower or green 10% higher vector color.

Additionally, these on-screen visual representations provide no numerical data. The text file will include angles of attack, forces, velocities and additional data for that instant of your flight. Advanced Simulation in X-Plane X-Plane is the most comprehensive and powerful flight simulator available.

As such, there are a great number of features available that go beyond simply taking off, flying around, and landing. These include tools like the logbook and checklists, and features like equipment failures and damage modeling. Keeping a Logbook Each time an aircraft is flown in X-Plane, the program logs the flight time in a digital logbook. Although AI aircraft will always follow the guidance of the air traffic control, they will also work around your aircraft if you are not interacting with the ATC.

Note: You will only be able to hear the air traffic control chatter if ATC audio output is enabled; to confirm this is the case, open the Settings screen, then click Sound.

All interactions with the air traffic control occur via the on-screen ATC window. To access this feature, simply press Enter Return on the keyboard. You can also program a button on a joystick to access this screen or click the headset icon in the menu.

In order to make a request or hear from the air traffic controllers, you must have your COM 1 radio tuned to the proper frequency for the request. Filing a flight plan is independent of any controller, so that option is always available.

However, once the flight plan is filed, you must tune to the Clearance Delivery, Ground, or Tower frequencies if available, in that order as in the real world to get clearance for takeoff. After you get clearance, you tune to the Ground if available or Tower frequencies for your taxi clearance. To see these frequencies, as well as other important airport information, click on the airport in the Map window, then on Details in the box that opens.

You can always tune your radios by hand, but you can also auto-tune your COM1 radio by clicking on any line in the ATC list. Your starting airport will already be filled in, but you must enter your destination airport code, as well as your planned cruising enroute altitude. You may also specify your route using NDBs, VORs, Fixes and airways. It will help you through each step in the proper order and give you hints if you get off track.

Remember you can do this by hand, by clicking on the line in the list of controllers, or, if auto-tune is enabled, it will happen automatically. If you wish to change your mind, you can return to the flight plan dialog in the same way and update it. As in the real world, you must wait for them to finish talking before you can talk.

You must also respond within a reasonable amount of time or they will repeat their instructions. Click Request Taxi to call ground to receive a taxi clearance. Acknowledge the clearance as described above and then look around you.

Where the arrows stop, you must also stop and wait for further instructions. When you reach the side of the runway, ground will instruct you to contact the tower. Read back the command and then tune to the tower frequency of 119. If there are aircraft using the runway, you will have to wait until they are done. This may take some time! Respond and then depart. Unless otherwise instructed, fly the runway heading up to your cleared altitude of 3,000 feet.

Check in as you did before. Continue on your heading and altitude and eventually Center will begin vectoring you to an approach at your destination of KBFI. Using a Checklist X-Plane has the ability to display a simple checklist in the simulator. To load a check list, open the File menu and click Open Checklist. Open it and you will see the checklist displayed line-by-line in the checklist window. You can use the forward and back buttons to go to the next and previous lines, respectively.

If you prefer to see the text file all at once rather than line-by-line as in the checklist view , you can select Open Text File from the File menu and then load a file in the manner discussed above. Additionally, moving the center of gravity forward left on the slider makes the plane behave more like a dart, and moving the center of gravity aft right on the slider makes the plane more unstable, and potentially unflyable.

Flying a plane with the center of gravity far aft is like shooting an arrow backwards—it wants to flip around with the heavy end in the front and the fins in the back. You can access this feature while in the Flight Configuration screen by clicking on an aircraft icon, then the Customize button, then the Failures button.

Since the airplane has a few hundred pieces of hardware, that means a failure might occur every 5 to 20 hours or so. Checking this box essentially allows the possibility of random and unexpected failures. The World section of the Failures window controls things outside of the airplane, such as bird strikes and airport equipment failures.

The other categories and subcategories in this window let the user set the frequency of specific failures for hundreds of different aircraft systems. Many of the options allow you to specify a time, speed, or other condition at which they will fail.

You can assign a different key by following the instructions in. This is seen most often for users running at standard speed, but failing to maintain 20 frames per second. The result is that the physics are integrating in slow-motion in order to avoid destabilizing from the low framerate.

Thus, if you need real-time simulation, you must run the simulator at 20 fps or faster. Taxiing More Accurately In commercial aircraft, a nosewheel tiller is used to more accurately align the nosewheel to the taxi lines, and to get the aircraft safely docked at jetways.

You can assign an axis on your joystick to control this tiller by opening the Settings screen, going to Joystick and, in one of the drop-down menus in the Axis tab, selecting nosewheel tiller.

Virtual Reality X-Plane 11. Note that no Intel GPUs are supported. Room-sized VR is supported, as well as using joysticks and other USB devices. In addition, you may need to enable foreign apps in the VR system settings. Click on SteamVR under the Tools section in the left sidebar, then the install button. As long as your headset is attached and your GPU meets minimum requirements , there will be a checkbox to enable VR hardware. Note that if you have the VR Mouse cursor enabled, you may need to completely remove the headset to restore use of the 2d mouse cursor on your computer monitor.

From here you can access the main menu, all settings, and any pop up warning screens. In general, the manipulators in and around the aircraft function the way they would it real life. Grab the throttle of the Cessna 172 by pressing and holding the trigger near it.

It will light up green, then push or pull the knob to adjust the setting. Lightly and partially squeeze the VR controller trigger to see a green laser appear. This feature essentially takes traditional manipulation and lets you perform the motion at any distance or angle that is convenient for you. By default, the pilot yoke behaves in a realistic manner—tilt your wrist left or right for roll, and push in or pull out to control pitch.

Ergonomic mode behaves slightly differently than real life—it works by tilting your wrist up or down to control pitch, and rolling your wrist left right for roll. Moving forward and back does nothing. This allows you to keep your hand in a relaxed and comfortable position while you fly and also allows you to be more precise with the controls.

You must press the trigger a second time to release it. If you do have hardware rudder pedals, it is up to you to control them. Move around the aircraft or the world by using teleport: push down on the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to see a blue arc with a circle at the end, which is your landing spot.

Some parts of the aircraft, such as seats, have a hotspot which will light up and snap you to that location. When you press the button, it zooms your view in so you can see distant things a bit clearer. When you release the button, your view resets. Press the three line button the menu button of the virtual controller to access the menu options. This option is the only supported way to recenter your view inside the cockpit. Use the thumb stick Oculus or touchpad Vive to move around menus and submenus, then use the trigger on the controller to select an option.

You can also bind a joystick button or key to this option. This cursor will function basically the same as a non-VR mouse. Troubleshooting VR is more demanding on your computer than simply using the desktop simulator. If you are not consistently running at least 45 fps in the base desktop sim, you will need to turn rendering settings down. If that does not help, a full restart of the computer often seems to fix many problems with launching VR.

That click is being stolen by SteamVR for internal functions. Navigation, Autopilots, and Flying on Instruments People often call customer support asking about some of the more advanced things that pilots do in the real world—how to navigate, use an autopilot, or fly on instruments.

This chapter will cover these areas in a fair amount of detail, but we recommend that, if you are really serious about mastering these facets of aviation, you head down to a local general aviation airport and hire a CFI Certified Flight Instructor for an hour or two. If you have a laptop, by all means bring it along and have the instructor detail these things in practice.

There is much more to review here than this manual could ever cover, so a quick search for information on the Internet will also be of assistance. You have no reference to the ground and are flying over St. Louis in the middle of an overcast layer. As you might guess, this looks pretty much identical to the view you would have flying over Moscow on instruments.

Louis and not over Moscow is to be able to navigate. You can pick from three different modes: VFR Sectional, IFR Low Enroute, and IFR High Enroute.

The IFR Low Enroute map is used as a low altitude Instrument Flight Rules navigation chart by piston propeller aircraft pilots. The IFR High Enroute map is essentially the same as the IFR Low Enroute view, but it displays the medium and high level airways instead of low level ones. It only shows the information of interest to pilots flying above 18,000 feet and making use of vector airways that are much longer, based on larger VORs with longer ranges.

The maps provide a lot of information on the area where your aircraft is located, including topography and selectable NAVAIDs. The thick blue and gray lines running across the maps are airways, which are basically like highways in the sky. These vector airways are given names for example, V503 and are used by air traffic controls to assign clearances. Airports shown in blue on the VFR sectional map have control towers in the real world.

You can also zoom in and out by using your mouse scroll wheel. Additionally, you can use the viewing control buttons located in the top left corner of the map window to alter your view. Use the plus or minus icons to zoom in or out respectively. Tap the target icon to center the view on the aircraft. This will also lock the map view onto the aircraft so that as you fly, the map will scroll underneath it and the aircraft will stay in the center.

Drag anywhere on the map to break the lock. In this second case, if the plane is flying south, the top of the map will be south. If the plane banks to the east, the map will automatically rotate and east will now be on top. Click on anything in the map to get more information on it. For example, if you click on your aircraft, the Inspector box will pop up with its name, heading, altitude, speed, and climb angle, most of which you can also edit from within the window.

Clicking on an airport will allow you to pick a new runway or final approach, or view details such as weather conditions and communications frequencies. Click on a NAVAID such as a VOR to tune radios with a click of a button. In the right side of the map window you can change what is displayed on the map. You can check the boxes to toggle the flight path, a compass rose around your aircraft, or to disable downwind ILS beacons. NDB Navigation Non-directional beacons were invented in the late 1940s and consisted of a ground-based transmitter that broadcast a homing signal.

A receiver in the aircraft could be tuned to one of about 300 discrete frequencies in order to tune to a particular transmitter. With that done, an instrument in the panel, called the NDB or, interchangeably, the ADF, or Automatic Direction Finder , would point to the station. Although nearly abandoned in the United States, NDBs are still used in many countries around the world. It is for this reason that they are modeled in X-Plane. It is located above the mixture knob and trim wheel, below the dual VOR CDIs, and is pictured in Figure 7.

Cessna ADF Figure 7. Instead of an NDB that a pilot could home in on, the VOR sends a series of 360 discrete little carrier tones on a main frequency.

Each of these carriers is oriented along a different radial from the station, one of 360 just like a compass rose. You can imagine it like the wheel of a bike: the VOR transmitter is the hub of the wheel with 360 spokes representing each radial. Thus, when you are flying along and tune in the main VOR frequency, you then fine tune your navigation display to tell you which of the 360 radials you are flying and also whether the transmitter station is in front of or behind you.

This error could only be due to two factors—either the pilot was not flying along the radial or the wind blew the airplane slightly off of course. A specific type of VOR, a VOR-DME, combines the lateral guidance that is, guidance left and right of a VOR with the distance guidance of a DME distance measuring equipment. This is a transmitter that combines both VOR and TACAN features.

TACAN or tactical air navigation provides special information to military pilots similar to a civilian VOR. However, for our purposes, this is functionally identical to a VOR-DME. To use a VOR, first look on your map to find a VOR station that is close to the location of the aircraft. Click on the map icon to open a window that will allow you to tune the frequency into your NAV 1 radio automatically.

Make sure the GPS is set to VLOC, if applicable. Keep in mind that you can also tune the navigation radio built into the GPS, but you may have to hit the flip-flop switch to bring the frequency you just tuned into the active window on top. A CDI or OBI is the other key instrument to VOR navigation. The vertical line in the center is the reference indicator, and moves to the left and right to indicate where the aircraft is in relation to a chosen radial.

Select a radial by turning the OBS knob which rotates the compass rose around the instrument; the chosen radial is indicated above the top yellow arrow. CDI in the Cessna Figure 7. Keep in mind that all radials are measured as the heading when moving away from a VOR beacon. Determining what radial you are on is simple. The number above the yellow arrow at the top of the CDI is your current radial position.

To intercept a different radial, look at your map again to determine where you are in relation to the station. If you are inbound to the station, pick the reciprocal on the opposite side of the station from your aircraft. If you are outbound, use the radial your aircraft is currently on. Turn the OBS dial again to enter the desired radial at the top of the circle. Most likely the vertical line will be off to one side or the other.

This indicates how far you are from your desired radial. To the left and right of the center target the little white circle the instrument displays five dots or short lines on each side. Each of these dots indicates that you are two degrees off of course. Thus, a full scale left deflection of the vertical reference indicates that the aircraft is 10 degrees right of the desired radial.

Just remember that as long as you are flying towards the VOR, the line on the CDI indicates the location of the desired course. If the reference line is on your left that means that your target radial is on your left, and you should turn that direction. Your aim is to get the vertical line in the center and to stay there, indicating you are flying the desired radial. You have no way of telling if you are 15 miles from the station or 45 miles away. The solution is to use two VOR radios so that you can plot your location from two different VORs.

ILS Navigation An ILS or instrument landing system differs from a VOR in that it provides both lateral guidance left and right, as given by a VOR and vertical guidance up and down. An ILS is therefore made up of two transmitters, a localizer and a glide slope—one for each component of the navigation.

Both these components of the ILS are tuned together; tuning an ILS is just like tuning in to a VOR. A localizer LOC transmitter provides lateral guidance to the centerline of a runway. It works by sending out two signals on the same channel, one of which modulates at 90 Hz and the other of which modulates at 150 Hz. One of these signals is sent out slightly to the left of the runway, while the other sent out slightly to the right of it.

If an aircraft is picking up more of the tone modulated at 150 Hz, it is off to the left. If it is picking up more of the tone modulated at 90 Hz, it is off to the right. The course deviation indicator or CDI in the instrument panel then indicates this so that the pilot can correct it.

When both tones are being received in equal amounts, the craft is lined up with the physical centerline of the runway. These LOC transmitters do not necessarily have to be paired with a glide slope but doing so makes them an ILS. The glide slope beacon functions similarly to the localizer, sending out two tones that have the same frequency, but different modulations. The difference is that the glide slope tells the plane that it is either too high or too low for its distance from the runway.

The ILS will allow a pilot to fly on instruments only to a point that is a half mile from the end of the runway at 200 feet depending on the category of the ILS above the ground. If the runway cannot be clearly seen at that point the pilot is prevented from executing a normal landing. GPS Navigation The Global Positioning System was first created for the US military and introduced to the public in the early 1990s. This system consists of a series of satellites orbiting the Earth which continuously send out signals telling their orbital location and the time the signal was sent.

A GPS receiver can tune in to the signals they send out and note the time it took for the signal to travel from the satellite to the receiver for several different satellites at once. Since the speed at which the signals travel is known, it is a simple matter of arithmetic to determine how far from each satellite the receiver is. Triangulation or, rather, quadrangulation is than used to determine exactly where the receiver is with respect to the surface of the Earth. In an aircraft, this information is compared with the onboard database to determine how far it is to the next airport, navigational aid NAVAID , waypoint, or whatever.

The concept is simple, but the math is not. GPS systems have turned the world of aviation on its head, allowing everyday pilots to navigate around with levels of accuracy that were unimaginable 20 years ago. While the intricate workings of the various GPS radios are complex, the basic principals are pretty consistent. On the Garmin 430, entry is performed using the control knob on the bottom right of the unit. The databases in these radios are not limited simply to the identifiers of the airports you may wish to fly to.

Flying on Instruments To begin a discussion on instrument flight, we must first discuss why it is so difficult. Rather, the difficulty lies in believing what the instruments are saying. Your body has developed a system of balance and equilibrium that has evolved in humans over millions of years, and forcing your brain to ignore these signals and to believe what the instruments are telling you is very difficult. To put it bluntly, in a real aircraft, your life depends on ignoring your feelings and senses and flying based solely on the information in front of you.

Gyroscopes and Their Application in Flight The gyroscope was invented many decades before aircraft, but its tremendous implications for flying were not realized until the mid- to late—1920s. The basic principal that they work on is that if you take a relatively heavy object and rotate it at a high rotational velocity it will hold its position in space.

You can then mount this stable, rigid gyroscope in an instrument that is fixed to your aircraft and measure the relative motion of the instrument case and thus the airplane about the fixed gyro. There are three primary gyroscopic instruments in the panel. The Primary Flight Instruments There are six primary instruments that have become standard in any instrument panel. The top row, from left to right, contains the airspeed indicator ASI , the attitude indicator AI and the altimeter ALT.

The bottom row contains the turn coordinator TC , the directional gyro DG and the vertical speed indicator VSI. The airspeed indicator shows the speed at which the aircraft is traveling through the air.

In its simplest form, it is nothing more than a spring which opposes the force of the air blowing in the front of a tube attached under the wing or to the nose of the aircraft. The attitude indicator informs the pilot of his or her position in space relative to the horizon. This is accomplished by fixing the case of the instrument to the aircraft and measuring the displacement of the case with reference to a fixed gyroscope inside. The altimeter looks somewhat like the face of a clock and serves to display altitude.

This is measured by the expansion or contraction of a fixed amount of air acting on a set of springs. As the airplane climbs or descends, the relative air pressure outside the aircraft changes and the altimeter reports the difference between the outside air pressure and a reference, contained in a set of airtight bellows.

The turn coordinator measures the rate of turn for the aircraft. The instrument is only accurate when the turn is coordinated-that is, when the airplane is not skidding or slipping through the turn.

In a car, this results in a turn radius that is larger than that commanded by the driver. It results from an aircraft that is banked too steeply for the rate of turn selected. The directional gyro is a simple instrument that points north and thus allows the pilot to tell which way she or he is flying. Typically, non-pressurized airplanes will climb comfortably at about 700 fpm if the plane is capable and descend at about 500 fpm.

Pressurized airplanes can climb and descend much more rapidly and still maintain the cabin rate of change at about these levels, since the cabin altitude is not related to the ambient altitude unless the pressurization system fails. Similar steps can be used for any airport in any application. Finding the Frequencies Start by loading the default Cessna 172 at KSEA airport. To fly an instrument approach, we first need to know the local navigational aid NAVAID frequencies in order to tune our radios.

If needed, switch to either the IFR Low or IFR High Enroute view. Now, Sea-Tac is a busy airport, so you may have to zoom in to find the ILS for the runway you are approaching.

When you find it, though, you can click on it to highlight in yellow the ILS path and to open a small window with details. From this window you can tune your radios with a click of a button and place your aircraft up in the air at the perfect spot for the approach.

Recall from the discussion of ILSs previously in this chapter that an ILS combines the functionality of a localizer providing lateral guidance to the centerline of the runway with a glide slope transmitter providing vertical guidance down to the runway. Setting Up the CDI or HSI Having found the relevant ILS frequency, enter it into the Nav 1 radio remember you can tune your radios automatically using the buttons in the map window.

Make sure the GPS if applicable is set to VLOC by clicking the CDI button near the bottom of the panel to cycle through GPS or VLOC navigation. Click the GPS screen in the cockpit to bring up the close-up of the instrument if needed. You can tune the frequency here as well; changing the GPS frequency will adjust the NAV 1 radio, and vice versa. As in VOR navigation, the CDI is the primary instrument used for ILS navigation in the Cessna.

However, in ILS navigation both the horizontal and vertical lines move to provide guidance. The localizer is represented by a vertical line. When it is in the center of the CDI, it means that the aircraft is lined up almost perfectly with the physical centerline of the runway. The glide slope indicator portion of the CDI is represented by a horizontal line. When this is in the center of the instrument, the aircraft is perfectly in line with the glide slope and is descending at an ideal rate.

Below the attitude indicator is the directional gyro. You can use this to line up your approach with a known heading e.

Additionally, the glide slope indicator will begin to move. This line functions like the vertical one: If its needles are above the center of the instrument then the craft needs to fly up to get back on track, and if they are below the center of the instrument, it needs to fly down to intercept the glide slope. However, the glide slope is in most cases a downward slope at three degrees, so you should never need to climb to intercept it, just adjust the rate of descent.

The horizontal line is above us when we start the approach, since we started 10 nm out from the runway. Continue flying the same altitude, and the line will slowly come down to the center, and from there you should control the descent to keep it there.

The goal is to keep the vertical line centered to stay on the localizer, and the horizontal line centered to stay on the glide slope. Follow the guidance of the localizer and glide slope until the craft reaches an altitude of about 300 feet above the runway. At this point, if everything was done correctly, the runway will be right in front of the aircraft.

If the landing itself was managed properly, the aircraft will be at its stalling speed plus 30% with the gear and flaps down as it comes in for a landing.

In the Cessna, this is about 65 knots. This instrument allows pilots to fly a GPS approach as well as direct-to navigation. The GPS essentially combines three things: A NAVCOM 1 radio, a GPS, and a very small moving map. GPS close up Figure 7. This can be moved around the cockpit as needed.

Clicking the GPS display in the cockpit a second time will close the window. The controls on left side adjust the VOR, localizer and communication frequencies, while the ones on the right control GPS functions. When the bottom frequency is highlighted in a paler blue, you can use the inner and outer rotating knobs to change the frequency. Read messages, create or edit a flight plan, and activate procedures by pressing the buttons at the bottom.

In general, the large dial moves between lines or options, while the smaller one is used to edit a line. The LCD will change to a data entry screen. From the main navigation screen, click the large knob twice to get to the group of menus for nearest airport, intersection, NDB, VOR, and airspace. After creating a flight plan, you can save it to load later by pressing the Menu button while in the active flight plan screen.

You can also reverse the order of waypoints or delete the entire plan from this menu. To load a saved plan, use the small knob to go to the second screen of the Flight Plan category.

Using the Autopilot The autopilot works by implementing a number of different functions. These include, among other things, the ability to automatically hold a certain pitch, altitude, heading, or speed, or to fly to a commanded altitude. Each of these is a mode that the aircraft can be put into simply by clicking that button on the panel with the mouse. Not all aircraft have autopilot, and some of the simpler craft, such as the Cessna 172, may have fewer modes than those listed below.

The actual use of these autopilot functions will be discussed in the following sections. This will simply hold the wings level while the pilot figures out what to do next. This will simply follow the heading bug on the HSI or direction gyro. This will fly a VOR or ILS radial, or to a GPS destination. Note that the GPS may be programmed by the FMS. This will hold the current or pre-selected altitude by pitching the nose up or down. This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, leaving the throttle alone.

This will hold the pre-selected airspeed by pitching the nose up or down, adding or taking away power automatically. This is commonly used to change altitude in airliners, as it allows the pilot add or take away power while the airplane pitches the nose to hold the most efficient airspeed. If the pilot adds power, the plane climbs. If they take it away, the plane descends. SPD and FLCH are almost identical functions in X-Plane—they both pitch the nose up or down to maintain a desired aircraft speed, so adding or taking away power results in climbs and descents, respectively.

The difference is that if you have auto-throttle on the airplane, FLCH will automatically add or take away power for you to start the climb or descent, whereas SPD will not. This is commonly used to just hold the nose somewhere until the pilot decides what to do next. This will fly the glide slope portion of an ILS.

This will automatically load altitudes from the FMS Flight Management System into the autopilot for you in order to follow route altitudes. Every ILS on the planet has a little-known second localizer that goes in the opposite direction as the inbound localizer. This is used for the missed approach, allowing you to continue flying along the extended centerline of the runway, even after passing over and beyond the runway.

To save money, some airports will not bother to install a new ILS at the airport to land on the same runway going the other direction, but instead let you fly this second localizer backwards to come into the runway from the opposite direction of the regular ILS!

This is called a back course ILS. Using the same ILS in both directions has its advantages e. Hit the BC autopilot button if you are doing this. It causes the autopilot to realize that the needle deflection is backwards and still fly the approach. Note that HSIs do not reverse the visible needle deflection in the back-course; you must turn the housing that the deflection needle is mounted on around 180° to fly the opposite direction. Note also that the glide slope is not available on the back course, so you have to use the localizer part of the procedure only.

Turning It On and Off Before using the autopilot, it needs to be turned on. If the flight director is OFF, nothing will happen when you try to use the autopilot. If it is ON, then the autopilot will not physically move the airplane controls, but will rather move little target wings on your artificial horizon that you can try to mimic as you fly. If you do this, you will be following the guidance that the autopilot is giving you, even though you are the one actually flying.

The flight director, then, is following whatever autopilot mode you selected, and you, in turn, are following the flight director to actually fly the plane. If the flight director is set to AUTO, then the autopilot servos will actually fly the airplane according to the autopilot mode you have selected. In other words, turning the flight director ON turns on the brains of the autopilot, displaying the commands from the modes above on the horizon as little magenta wings you can follow.

Turning the Flight Director switch to AUTO turns on the servos of the autopilot, so the plane follows the little magenta wings for you without you touching the stick.

Therefore, if you have a flight director switch, make sure it is in the right mode for the type of autopilot guidance you want—-none, flight director only, or servo-driven controls. With the flight director set to the right mode, you can engage the autopilot functions by simply pressing the desired button in the instrument panel.

To turn off an autopilot function, simply hit its button once again. When all other autopilot functions are turned off, the autopilot will revert to the default functions. To turn the autopilot off altogether, simply turn the FLIGHT DIR switch to OFF. Using the Controls With the autopilot turned on either to the flight director-only mode or the servo-driven control mode , you are ready to use the autopilot functions. We will discuss when it would be appropriate to use some of the most common functions.

Wing Leveler and Pitch Sync Hit either the wing leveler WLV or the pitch sync PTCH to hold the current roll and pitch attitude, respectively. This is useful when switching between autopilot functions. For the sake of smooth transitions, many of these values will be set by default to your current speed or altitude at the moment the autopilot function buttons are hit.

If you want the autopilot to guide the aircraft to a new altitude, you have to ask yourself: Do you want the airplane to hold a constant vertical speed to reach that new altitude, or a constant airspeed to reach it? Since airplanes are most efficient at some constant indicated airspeed, climbing by holding a constant airspeed is usually most efficient. Imagine you are flying along at 5,000 feet and you hit ALT, causing the autopilot to store your current altitude of 5,000 feet.

Now, though, you want to climb to 9,000 feet. You would first dial 9,000 into the altitude window. The plane will not go there yet; before it will, you must choose how you want to get to this new altitude. To get to your new altitude via a given airspeed as airliners do , after dialing in 9,000 feet in the altitude window, you would hit the FLCH or SPD buttons. This will cause the plane to pitch the nose up or down to maintain your current indicated airspeed.

Now, simply add a dose of power if needed to cause the nose of the plane to rise which the autopilot will command in order to keep the speed from increasing.

When you reach 9,000 feet, the autopilot will leave speed-hold mode and go into altitude-hold mode, holding 9,000 feet until further notice. Both the airspeed and vertical speed modes will be maintained until you reach the new specified altitude, at which point the autopilot will abandon that mode and go into altitude-hold mode. The same thing will happen with the glide slope control.

If the glide slope is armed that is, lit up after you pushed the button , then the autopilot will abandon your vertical mode when the glide slope engages. This will also happen with the localizer control. If the localizer is armed, the autopilot will abandon your heading mode when the localizer engages. The key thing to realize is that the vertical speed, flight level change, and heading modes are all modes that command the plane the moment they are engaged.

Altitude, glide slope, and localizer, on the other hand, are all armed in standby until one of the modes above intercepts the altitude, glide slope, localizer, or GPS course.

An exception to the above rule is altitude. If you hit the altitude button, the autopilot will be set to the current altitude. This is not the way a smart pilot flies, though. A smart pilot with a good airplane, a good autopilot, and good planning will dial in the assigned altitude long before he or she gets there including the initial altitude before take off and then use vertical speed, flight level change, or even pitch sync to reach that altitude.

You are given a runway heading and cleared for takeoff. Once there, click the HDG button again and the plane will maintain its course. The autopilot automatically notes the current vertical velocity or airspeed, and the plane flies at that airspeed or vertical velocity until it gets to 3,000 feet, where it levels off. Localizer and glide slope These are the options that are most difficult to figure out, partially because the right frequencies and HSI mode must be selected to use them, and partially because they will do nothing until they capture the approach path they are looking for.

For that to happen, some other mode any of the ones discussed above must be engaged to do that. These modes capture an ILS, VOR, or GPS course, so they must obviously be able to fly either NAV 1, NAV 2, or GPS.

The autopilot only knows which of these three to use when you tell it which one. Note: In some aircraft, this is instead a three-position switch labeled SOURCE. Remember that if you enter destinations into the FMS, they will automatically feed into the GPS, so the autopilot will follow them if you select LOC.

The LOC button will immediately begin lateral navigation to a GPS destination once engaged. It will, however, only track a VOR radial or ILS localizer after the needle has come off of full-scale deflection. This means that if you have a full-scale ILS needle deflection simply because you have not yet gotten to the localizer the localizer mode will simply go into armed yellow mode, and will not do anything yet to the plane.

Your current heading or wing level mode if engaged will remain in force or you can fly by hand until the localizer needle starts to move in towards the center. Once that happens, the LOC will suddenly go from armed mode yellow to active mode. This causes the autopilot to start flying the plane for you, disengaging any previous modes. The reason that the localizer function disengages previous modes is that as soon as the localizer needle comes in, you want the autopilot to forget about heading and start flying the localizer down to the runway.

Alternatively, you may simply fly the plane by hand to the localizer with no autopilot mode on at all and have the autopilot take over once the ILS needle starts to come in, indicating you are entering the localizer. Interestingly, this is much the same as the altitude modes.

Just as the localizer is armed by hitting the LOC button, and you can do anything until the localizer arms take over lateral control, the altitude is also armed always and automatically and you can fly any vertical speed, airspeed, or pitch manually or on autopilot until the altitude is reached, at which point the autopilot will go into altitude hold mode. It does this because you typically have the airplane on altitude hold until you intercept the glide slope, at which point the plane should stop holding altitude and start descending down to the runway.

In other words, the glide slope function will automatically go from armed to active once the plane hits the center of the glide slope. If you come in above the glide slope, cross the localizer at a wide angle, or intercept the localizer too close to the airport, the autopilot will not be able to maneuver the airplane for landing again, just as in a real plane.

Do all these things and the plane will follow any FMS plan, assuming, of course, that the plane you are flying has all this equipment which of course some do not. The steps will be similar in any aircraft.

It is found in the General Aviation aircraft folder. Select San Diego International Airport KSAN as the starting airport from the Airport box. Hit the top left INIT button on the FMS. We are starting at San Diego International Airport KSAN and flying to San Bernardino International KSBD. Make sure your press the appropriate button on the FMS before entering the code for the NAVAID of your choice.

Use the DEL button to erase mistakes, or CLR to cancel the entire plan. The PREV PAGE and NEXT PAGE buttons will cycle through the various waypoints in your plan. To save an FMS plan, click the SA button, or click the LD button to load a saved plan. Move the FLIGHT DIR switch to on, then take off. Engage HDG mode on your autopilot and set it to intercept the FMS course.

Press the LOC autopilot button to arm FMS course capture so as you approach the course the autopilot will lock on and turn toward the waypoint. You must first intercept the FMS course to make the autopilot lock on.

If for some reason the FMS fails to do this, you can force it to step forward or skip waypoints by using the NEXT button to display the desired waypoint and the select button a D with an arrow through it to activate it.

Special Situations in X-Plane Using an Instructor Operator Station IOS for Flight Training An Instructor Operator Station is a sort of console used by a flight instructor or someone standing in for an instructor. This console can be used to fail multitudes of aircraft systems, alter the weather and time of day, or relocate the aircraft.

The IOS can be run on a second monitor on the same computer as the simulator. Setting up the IOS If you are using one computer with two or more monitors, you can enable the IOS on the second monitor by going to the Graphics tab in the Settings screen. Note that the IOS can only be used full screen, not windowed, when set up in this manner. When you close the Settings window you will have the IOS screen options on your second monitor and the flight on the primary monitor.

Click the two squares in the top right corner to pop it out as a separate window that you can then drag to a different monitor. IOS Features Once you have the IOS configured how you would like it, you will be able to fly on one monitor while controlling many of the aspects of your flight on the other.

In addition, there are buttons to load or save a flight, reset the flight path and quit X-Plane. Note also that you can move to the helipad nearest you at any time by opening the Customize Location screen, clicking the Special Starts button and clicking on the Helipad Start line. All manner of different helicopter layouts can be found in reality, but we will discuss the standard configuration here—-a single overhead rotor with a tail rotor in the back. The amount of lift generated by the main rotor is only varied by adjusting the blade pitch of the main rotor blades.

So, imagine the one-and-only operational RPM of a helicopter is 400 RPM. This means that the rotor is giving about zero lift! Because the blades have zero pitch, they have very little drag, so it is very easy to move them through the air. In other words, the power required to turn the rotor at its operational RPM is pretty minimal. Equally apparent is the fact that they are harder to drag through the air now, since they are doing a lot more work. To compensate, at that point any modern helicopter will automatically increase the throttle as much it needs to in order to maintain the desired 400 RPM in the rotor.

This means the rotor pitch is flat, with minimum drag and zero lift. In X-Plane, a flat collective corresponds to the throttle being full forward, or farthest from the user. On the ground, with the collective pitch flat, there is little drag on the blades, so the power required to hold this speed is pretty low. In X-Plane, this is done by easing the throttle on a joystick back down toward you.

This increases the blade pitch on the main rotor and therefore increases its lift, but it also increases the drag on the rotor a lot. The rotor RPM begins to fall below 400 RPM, but the auto-throttle senses this and loads in however much engine power it has to in order to keep the rotor moving at exactly 400 RPM.

The auto-throttle continues adding power to keep the rotor turning at 400 RPM no matter how much the collective is raised or lowered. This inevitability can be delayed for a few moments using the anti-torque pedals. The main rotor is putting a lot of torque on the craft, causing it to spin in the opposite direction because of course for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction—the rotor is twisted one way, the helicopter twists the other way.

This is where the anti-torque pedals come in. The rotational torque on the helicopter is countered with thrust from the tail rotor. Just push the left or right rudder pedal such as the to get more or less thrust from the tail rotor. Incidentally, the tail rotor is geared to the main rotor so that they always turn in unison.

If the main rotor loses 10% RPM, the tail rotor loses 10% RPM. The tail rotor, like the main rotor, cannot change its speed to adjust its thrust. Once the craft is in the air and the collective pitch of the main rotor is being adjusted in X-Plane, using the joystick throttle , try holding the craft 10 feet in the air and adjusting the tail-rotor pitch with the anti-torque pedals i. From here, the joystick should be wiggled left, right, fore, and aft to steer the helicopter around.

Here is how this works: If the stick is moved to the right, then the rotor blade will increase its pitch when it is in the front of the craft, and decrease its pitch when it is behind the craft. In other words, the rotor blade will change its pitch through a full cycle every time it runs around the helicopter once.

This means that it changes its pitch from one extreme to the other 400 times per minute 7 times per second if the rotor is turning at 400 RPM. Pretty impressive, especially considering that the craft manages to stay together under those conditions!

So, we have the collective, cyclic, and anti-torque controls. When the stick is moved to the right, the rotor increases pitch when it is in the part of its travel that is in front of the helicopter. This will increase the lift on the front of the rotor disc, causing it to tilt to the right, since the gyroscopic forces are applied 90° along the direction of rotation of the gyroscope. Now that the rotor is tilted to the right, it will of course drag the craft off to the right as long as it is producing lift.

It can conduct no torque left, right, fore, and aft to the body of the helicopter. Maneuvering is only achieved by the rotor tilting left, right, fore, and aft, dragging the top of the craft underneath it in that direction. The helicopter body is dragged along under the rotor like livestock by a nose-ring, blindly following wherever the rotor leads. Once you master hovering in place, push the nose down to tilt the rotor forwards.

The lift from the rotor acting above the center of gravity of the aircraft will lower the nose of the helicopter, and the forward component of lift from the rotor will drag the craft forward as it flies along. Flying Special Situations To view all the possibilities for special starts in X-Plane, go to Flight Configuration and click the Customize button in the Location box. In the following window, click the Special Starts button at the bottom left of the screen. In this list you will find a number of special ways to take off and fly.

Selecting the Grass Strip, Dirt Strip, Gravel Strip, or Seaplane Start lines will take you, in your current aircraft, to the nearest airstrip of that type. Additional types of special starts are discussed in more detail in the following sections. Flying Gliders Get started with flying gliders by going to the Flight Configuration window and picking a glider, such as the default ASK 21.

Now you have to get in the air, either by being towed by another aircraft or by a winch. The Glider Tow button will load another aircraft the Stinson L—5 to which your glider will be attached. This aircraft will pull yours along behind it, and you will be able to release the line connecting you to the towplane at your desired altitude.

On the other hand, the Glider Winch button will set up a stationary winch on the ground which will quickly pull in a wire attached to your glider, which you will release once you are 1500 feet or so above the ground. In either case, you can release the tow line by pressing the space bar. When using the towplane, you will start behind the plane with its engine running and ready to go.

The towplane, once in flight, will take the glider as high as you like. Pressing the space bar will release the line between the aircraft, allowing you to soar freely. While being carried up to altitude, though, you must keep your glider in formation behind the towplane. This could result in simply pulling the plane off course, or ultimately in dragging the plane into a stall or spin. If that happens, things will get very complicated very quickly—-the towplane which will likely be crashing will be dragging the glider with it!

The dynamics of the resulting crash are interesting if nothing else. According to the , a glider pilot should keep the glider in one of two positions when being towed to altitude. Hold this position carefully to keep from dragging the towplane around! A glider pilot must watch the wind and the slope of the terrain carefully to hold inside the upward-moving currents of air, using the lift of the air flowing up the mountain slope to hold the craft aloft.

With a good 25-knot wind set in the simulator, you can get a nice, free elevator ride to 10,000 feet when flying along the windward side of a nice, steep mountain. This is called ridge lift. X-Plane will also model the columns of rising hot air, called thermals, that are useful for prolonging a glider flight. To turn on the thermals, open the Customize Weather screen from Flight Configuration. Expand the Thermals section in the right side list, then drag the Coverage slider up—15% coverage or more makes for a nice flight.

Now, to take full advantage of both ridge lift and thermals, gliders have a unique instrument known as the total energy variometer. If it is beeping, then the aircraft is in a nice updraft from the air following the terrain.

Circling in that area will let the glider ride the climbing air to altitude. When the variometer is emitting a steady tone, the craft is in descending air—-the glider has been blown to the wrong side of the mountain, and a crash will follow soon if you do not find a way out of that area! To land the glider, simply circle down to runway level. The trick is to approach the runway with just enough speed to set the craft down safely.

The first rule of flying a glider—quite unlike flying a powered plane—is this: Never come up short. When bringing a powered plane in for landing, if the pilot thinks the craft will not quite make it to the runway, it is no big deal. She or he just adds a bit more power to cover the extra distance. If a little more speed is needed, it is again no problem—just add power.

Gliders play by a different set of rules, though. Gliders must never be low on speed or altitude, because if they ever are, there is no way of getting it back—a crash is assured. Thermals, or rising currents of air, provide the exception to this rule.

These can give efficient gliders enough boost to get the job done, but thermals will typically provide less than 500 feet per minute of vertical speed—not enough to keep even a lightweight Cessna in the air! Now, with the Space Shuttle, it is certainly true that the aircraft has engines—three liquid-fuel rockets putting out 375,000 pounds of thrust each, to be exact.

To put this in perspective, a fully-loaded Boeing 737 tips that scales around 130,000 pounds, so each engine of the orbiter could punch the Boeing straight up at 3 Gs indefinitely.

So, the Space Shuttle has engines; the problem is fuel. Thus, the ship is a glider all the way from orbit to its touch-down on Earth. With the final bit of fuel that is left after the mission, the orbiter fires its smaller de-orbit engines to slow it down to a bit over 15,000 miles per hour and begins its descent into the atmosphere.

So, if you want to fly the Space Shuttle, and the Space Shuttle is a glider from the time it leaves orbit to the time it touches down on Earth, you must bear in mind the cardinal rule of gliding: Always aim long past the landing point , not short, because if ever you aim short, you are dead, because you cannot make up lost speed or altitude without engines. Aim long since the extra speed and altitude can always be dissipated with turns or speedbrakes if the craft winds up being too high, but nothing can be done if it comes up short.

In observance of this rule, the Orbiter intentionally flies its glide from orbit extra high to be on the safe side. But there is one problem. It would appear that if the Orbiter flies its entire approach too high, it will glide right past Edwards. For most of the re-entry, the Shuttle flies with the nose way up for extra drag, and it makes steep turns to intentionally dissipate the extra energy.

The nose-up attitude and steep turns are very inefficient, causing the Shuttle to slow down and come down to Earth at a steeper glide angle. If it ever looks like the Orbiter might not quite be able to make it to the landing zone, the crew simply lowers the nose to be more efficient and level it out in roll to quit flying the steep turns. This makes the Orbiter then glide more efficiently, so the crew can stretch the glide to Edwards for sure.

The extra speed and altitude is the ace up their sleeve, but the drawback is they have to constantly bleed the energy off through steep turns with up to 70° bank angle! We will now walk through the re-entry process from the beginning as it is done both in the real Shuttle and in X-Plane.

After de-orbit burn, the shuttle heads for the atmosphere at 400,000 feet high with a speed of 17,000 miles per hour and a distance of 5,300 miles from Edwards equivalent to landing in the Mojave Desert after starting a landing approach west of Hawaii—not a bad pattern entry!

In reality, the autopilot flies the entire 30-minute re-entry, and the astronauts do not take over the controls of the shuttle until the final 2 minutes of the glide. The astronauts could fly the entire re-entry by hand, but it is officially discouraged by NASA, for obvious reasons. During the first one hundred NASA Shuttle missions, the craft was hand-flown for the entire re-entry only once, by a former Marine pilot who was ready for the ultimate risk and challenge.

Walkthrough To open the Space Shuttle for a re-entry flight into the atmosphere, go to the Aircraft section of Flight Configuration. Make sure Show extra aircraft from old versions is checked and select the Space Shuttle. Click on Customize in the location box. Click on Special Starts to find four options for flying the space shuttle: Full Re-entry, Final Re-entry, Full Approach, and Final Approach. The Space Shuttle: Final Approach is the shortest and easiest, as well as the most realistic since this is the only part of the whole procedure pilots actually hand-fly!

Click this button to fly the final eight miles before setting down on the runway at Edwards Airforce Base. Click Space Shuttle: Full Approach to start 40 miles away from Edwards. The Sapce Shuttle: Final Re-Entry button will start you almost 600 feet downrange for the final 12 minutes of descent to Edwards. To fly the whole 30 minute re-entry procedure, click the Space Shuttle: Full Re-entry button choose one of the other options for a much shorter flight. The ship will first hit air at about 400,000 feet, but it will be so thin that it will have almost no effect.

The airspeed indicator at this point will read around zero—interesting, since the craft is actually moving at over 17,000 mph. The reason for this is that the airspeed indicator works based on how much air is hitting it, just like the wings of the Orbiter do. The indicated airspeed will build gradually as the craft descends. Under these conditions, even though the Shuttle is actually slowing down, the airspeed indicator will rise as it descends into thicker air that puts more pressure on the airspeed indicator.

This oddity of the airspeed indicator, though, is useful, since the air is also putting more pressure on the wings. This means you should get some help with your research paper and the airspeed indicator is really measuring how much force the wings can put out, which is really what a pilot is interested in here.

It indicates lower speeds in thin air, but the wings put out less lift in thin air as well, so the airspeed indicator works very well to tell the pilot how much lift can be put out by the wings. If the airspeed indicator reads more than about 250 knots, the wings have enough air to generate the lift to carry the aircraft. If the airspeed indicator is showing less than about 250 knots, then the wings do not have enough air hitting them to lift the Shuttle, so it is still more or less coasting in the thin upper atmosphere, where the air is too thin to do much for controlling flight.

As the airspeed indicator on the HUD gradually starts to indicate a value as the aircraft descends into thicker air , it means the craft is starting to ease down into the atmosphere at 15,000 mph like a sunburned baby trying to ease into a boiling-hot Jacuzzi— very carefully and very slowly. Remember, if the craft was going 15,000 mph in the thick air of sea level, it would break up into a million pieces in a microsecond. The only reason it survives at 15,000 mph up here is the air is so thin that it has almost no impact on the ship.

The trick is to get the craft moving much slower than 15,000 mph by the time it gets down to the thick air of sea level—and to have it doing so at Edwards Air Force Base. This is what the re-entry is for, to dissipate speed while descending so that the Orbiter is never going too fast for the thickness of the air that it is in. It should only descend into the thicker air once it has lost some speed in the thinner air up higher.

At the same time, the HUD should begin showing speed. Notice the picture of the Orbiter on the far right-hand EFIS display in Figure 8. Both the Orbiter and the path down to Edwards should be visible. The goal is to stay centered on the path.

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