Professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017




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professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017

The exchange of D with protium H in H 2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved.

professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017

Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. The roughness of the HDGS coated with hybrids was also characterized by atomic force microscopy. The third technique is based on the unique combination of microscopy and spectrometry in the transmission electron microscope TEM of Brunel University London UK. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior.


Please select whether you prefer to view the MDPI pages with a view tailored for mobile displays or to view the MDPI pages in the normal scrollable desktop version. This selection will be stored into your cookies and used automatically in next visits. You can also change the view style at any point from the main header when using the pages with your mobile device. From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent polymers SAPs can be used in a plethora of applications.

The remaining challenges and potential solutions for SAP application in concrete have been addressed using both natural and synthetic SAPs. Abstract: The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. General corrosion rate was measured by weight loss tests.

After tests, scanning electron microscope analysis was carried out to detect cracks and localized attacks. The results are discussed in relation with exposure conditions. They show very low corrosion rates strictly dependent upon time and temperature. No stress corrosion cracking was observed on U-bend specimens, under constant loading.

Small cracks confined in the necking cone of specimens prove that stress corrosion cracking only occurred during slow strain rate tests at stresses exceeding the yield strength. After the SPS process, dense AlN and TiB 2 composites with Nb 2O 5, Y 2O 3 and ZrO 2 were successfully prepared.

X-ray diffraction analysis showed that in the AlN composites, the addition of Nb 2O 5 gives rise to Nb 4N 3 during sintering. The compound Y 3Al 5O 12 YAG was observed as precipitate in the sample with Y 2O 3. X-ray diffraction analysis of the TiB 2 composites showed TiB 2 as a single phase in these materials.

The maximum Vickers and toughness values were 14. Abstract: This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe.

In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric. The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching.

The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe. This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS.

Abstract: A metal—insulator—metal structure resistive switching device based on H 0. The retention property had no degradation at 6 × 10 4 s. Combined with the conductance mechanism, the RS behaviors are attributed to joule heating and redox reactions in the HZO thin film induced by the external electron injection.

Abstract: This paper deals with the influence of selected methods mechanical and pneumatic as well as various factors wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing on 3D molding of veneers. Cracks and warping edges were also evaluated in selected groups of mechanical molding.

Mechanical methods tested veneers with various treatments steaming, water and ammonia plasticizing and lamination. The pneumatic method was based on veneer shaping using air pressure. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. The differences between the mechanical and pneumatic methods were not considerable. The most suitable method for mechanical 3D molding was the veneer lamination by polyethylene foils with thicknesses of 80 and 125 μm, inasmuch as these achieved better results than veneer plasticized by steam.

The occurrence of cracks was more frequent in beech veneers, whereas, edge warping occurred at similar rates for both wood species and depends rather on holding method during 3D molding.

Use of the ammonia solution is more suitable and there occurs no marked increase in moisture as happens when soaking in water. Barrier membranes of 0.

Mechanical strength was investigated, and new bone formation was evaluated through animal experimental studies. Experimental animals were sacrificed after having 2 weeks and 8 weeks of recovery, and specimens were processed for histologic and histomorphometric analyses measuring the area of bone regeneration % using an image analysis program.

In 2 weeks, bone-like materials and fibrous connective tissues were observed in histologic analysis. In 8 weeks, all experimental groups showed the arrangement of osteoblasts surrounding the supporting body on the margin and center of the bone defect region. Within the limitations of this study, a bacterial cellulose membrane with 0. In this work, a ring oscillator based on n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide IGZO and p -type tin monoxide SnO is presented.

The IGZO thin-film transistor TFT shows a linear mobility of 11. The SnO TFT exhibits a mobility of 0. The three-stage ring oscillator based on IGZO and SnO is able to operate at 2. The oxide-based complementary circuits, after further optimization of the operation voltage, may have wide applications in practical large-area flexible electronics.

The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization DRX characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model.

The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323—1423 K and strain rate range of 0.

Abstract: In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs , it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments.

The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated.

In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0. However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts. Abstract: The catalyzing effect on nucleation of recrystallization from existing grains resulting from previous lower temperature deformation is analyzed, analogous to the size effect of foreign nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation.

Analytical formulation of the effective nucleation site for recrystallization leads to a negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size of metals. Non-isochronal annealing—where annealing time is set just enough for the completion of recrystallization at different temperatures—is conducted on pure copper after severe plastic deformation. More homogeneous and smaller grains are obtained at higher annealing temperature.

The good fit between analytical and experimental results unveils the intrinsic feature of this negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope SEM and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter.

Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC.

Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity HRRI is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption OC calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry TC method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation.

HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR , proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography GPC , thermogravimetric analysis TGA and differential scanning calorimetric DSC Techniques.

The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction XRD , atomic force microscopy AFM , Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature T MIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance.

Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry.

This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO 2-based smart windows. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the two compounds featured 3D supramolecular architectures constructed from noncovalent interactions, such as π···π stacking, C-H···π, C-H···O, C-Cl···π, C-H···Cl interactions. The thermogravimetric analysis and ESI-MS study of compounds 1 and 2 suggested that the Cr III complexes possessed good stability both in solid and solution.

In addition, the ultraviolet and fluorescence response of the HL 1 and HL 2 shown marked changes upon their complexation with Cr III ion, which indicated that the two 8-hydroxyquinolinate based ligand are promising heavy metal chelating agent for Cr 3+. Abstract: Herein, we describe three advanced techniques for cathodoluminescence CL spectroscopy that have recently been developed in our laboratories.

The first is a new method to accurately determine the CL-efficiency of thin layers of phosphor powders. To overcome this problem of charging, a comparison method has been developed, which enables accurate measurement of the current density of the electron beam.

The study of CL from phosphor specimens in a scanning electron microscope SEM is the second subject to be treated. A detailed description of a measuring method to determine the overall decay time of single phosphor crystals in a SEM without beam blanking is presented.

The third technique is based on the unique combination of microscopy and spectrometry in the transmission electron microscope TEM of Brunel University London UK.

This combination enables the recording of CL-spectra of nanometre-sized specimens and determining spatial variations in CL emission across individual particles by superimposing the scanning TEM and CL-images.

Their flame retardant and thermal insulation properties were investigated. The vibrational modes, structure transformation, and Al coordination of crystalline, glassy, and molten states of KAl MoO 4 2 have been investigated by in-situ high temperature Raman scattering and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance MAS NMR spectroscopy, together with first principles density functional simulation of room temperature Raman spectrum. The effect of K +, from ordered arrangement in the crystal to random distribution in the melt, on the local chemical environment of Al, was also revealed.

The distribution and quantitative analysis of different Al coordination subspecies are final discussed and found to be dependent on the thermal history of the glass samples.

Abstract: Significant research has been performed on the challenge of improving thermoelectric materials, with maximum peak figure of merit, ZT, the most common target. We use an approximate thermoelectric material model, matched to real materials, to demonstrate that when an application is known, average ZT is a significantly better optimization target.

We quantify this difference with some examples, with one scenario showing that changing the doping to increase peak ZT by 19% can lead to a performance drop of 16%. The importance of average ZT means that the temperature at which the ZT peak occurs should be given similar weight to the value of the peak. An ideal material for an application operates across the maximum peak ZT, otherwise maximum performance occurs when the peak value is reduced in order to improve the peak position.

However, their clinical application was limited due to the too rapid degradation. In the study, hydroxyapatite HA was incorporated into Mg-Zn alloy via selective laser melting. Results showed that the degradation rate slowed down due to the decrease of grain size and the formation of protective layer of bone-like apatite.

Moreover, the grain size continually decreased with increasing HA content, which was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation and increased number of nucleation particles in the process of solidification.

At the same time, the amount of bone-like apatite increased because HA could provide favorable areas for apatite nucleation. Besides, HA also enhanced the hardness due to the fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, some pores occurred owing to the agglomerate of HA when its content was excessive, which decreased the biodegradation resistance.

The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the hybrid coatings on HDGS was studied in chloride-contaminated simulated concrete pore solutions SCPS by polarization resistance measurements.

The roughness of the HDGS coated with hybrids was also characterized by atomic force microscopy. The structural characterization of the hybrid materials proved the effective reaction between Jeffamine ® and 3-isocyanate propyltriethoxysilane ICPTES and indicated that the addition of TEOS does not seem to affect the organic structure or to increase the degree of condensation of the hybrid materials.

Despite the apparent lack of influence on the hybrids architecture, the polarization resistance measurements confirmed that TEOS addition improves the corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings U X :TEOS in chloride-contaminated SCPS when compared to samples prepared without any TEOS U X.

This behavior could be related to the decrease in roughness of the hybrid coatings due TEOS addition and to the different metal coating interaction resulting from the increase of the inorganic component in the hybrid matrix.

Abstract: Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer.

The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid PW—LDPE—SA. The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate.

The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity.

Abstract: Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability. In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of maleic anhydride-modified xylan MAHX with N-isopropylacrylamide NIPAm and acrylic acid AA under UV irradiation to form MAHX- g-P NIPAm-co-AA hydrogels.

The pore volume, the mechanical properties, and the release rate for drugs of hydrogels could be controlled by the degree of substitution of MAHX. These hydrogels were characterized by swelling ability, lower critical solution temperature LCST , Fourier-transform infrared FTIR , and SEM.

Furthermore, the cumulative release rate was investigated for acetylsalicylic acid and theophylline, as well as the cytocompatibility MAHX-based hydrogels. In vitro, the cumulative release rate of acetylsalicylic acid for MAHX-based hydrogels was higher than that for theophylline, and in the gastrointestinal sustained drug release study, the acetylsalicylic acid release rate was extremely slow during the initial 3 h in the gastric fluid 24. The cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that MAHX-based hydrogels could promote cell proliferation and had satisfactory biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells.

These results indicated that MAHX-based hydrogels, as new drug carriers, had favorable behavior for intestinal-targeted drug delivery. Abstract: The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium D was investigated.

Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium H in H 2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction XRD , transmission electron microscopy TEM , energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS , fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance ESR were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material.

They indicated that the core phase YF 3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO 2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho 3+ single-doped YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material.

Results showed that the YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b RhB and 34.

Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved. Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material.

The CNT—Al 2O 3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al 2O 3 particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al 2O 3 particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs.

The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT—Al 2O 3 hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C, compared to neat epoxy.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements SACRCs after storage in diverse media for up to one year.

After polishing, specimens were immersed in a red wine RW ; b curry-solution CU ; c cress-solution CR ; and d distilled water DW at 37 °C and measured after 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365 days for color differences ΔE and water absorption WA. Non-aged specimens were used as baselines. After 365 days, all of the discs were polished and their ΔE was measured. The significantly highest WA presented in SOC; the lowest showed in BEA. The highest ΔE decrease presented in BEA.

Discoloration could not be removed completely by polishing. SACRCs need to be carefully selected for restorations in the esthetical zone with visible restoration margins. Polishing can significantly reduce the marginal discoloration. Abstract: Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry.

To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process.

The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior. The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15.

The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation. Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening.

Abstract: The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century.

All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods.

The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite Cu 2O and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite Cu 4SO 4 OH 6. The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition.

The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers.

The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability. Particular focus is on the role of geometrically necessary dislocations GNDs during bending-dominated load conditions and their impact on the characteristic bending size effect. Three different sample sizes are considered in this work with main variation in thickness.

A gradient extended crystal plasticity model is presented and applied in a three-dimensional finite-element FE framework considering slip system-based edge and screw components of the dislocation density vector.

The underlying mathematical model contains non-standard evolution equations for GNDs, crystal-specific interaction relations, and higher-order boundary conditions. Moreover, two element formulations are examined and compared with respect to size-independent as well as size-dependent bending behavior. The first formulation is based on a linear interpolation of the displacement and the GND density field together with a full integration scheme whereas the second is based on a mixed interpolation scheme.

While the GND density fields are treated equivalently, the displacement field is interpolated quadratically in combination with a reduced integration scheme. Computational results indicate that GND storage in small cantilever beams strongly influences the evolution of statistically stored dislocations SSDs and, hence, the distribution of the total dislocation density.

As a particular example, the mechanical bending behavior in the case of a physically motivated limitation of GND storage is studied. The resulting impact on the mechanical bending response as well as on the predicted size effect is analyzed.

Obtained results are discussed and related to experimental findings from the literature. Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool MT directly influences the machining performance. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increase the workpiece quality. This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that may be excellent candidates to fabricate the MT moving parts.

The selected materials have high dynamic characteristics and capacity to dampen mechanical vibrations. In this way, starting from the kinematic model of a milling machine, this study evaluates a number of prototypes made of Al foam sandwiches AFS , Al corrugated sandwiches ACS and composite materials reinforced by carbon fibres CFRP. These prototypes represented the Z-axis ram of a commercial milling machine.

The static and dynamical properties have been analysed by using both finite element FE simulations and experimental tests. The obtained results show that the proposed structures may be a valid alternative to the conventional materials of MT moving parts, increasing machining performance.

In particular, the AFS prototype highlighted a damping ratio that is 20 times greater than a conventional ram e. Its application is particularly suitable to minimize unwanted oscillations during high-speed finishing operations. The results also show that the CFRP structure guarantees high stiffness with a weight reduced by 48. The ACS structure has a good trade-off between stiffness and damping and may represent a further alternative, if correctly evaluated.


professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017

Table of Contents - professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017


professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017
At the same time, the amount of bone-like apatite increased because HA could provide favorable areas for apatite nucleation. The corrosion behavior of the hybrid coatings on HDGS was studied in chloride-contaminated simulated concrete pore solutions SCPS by polarization resistance measurements. They show very low corrosion rates strictly dependent upon time and temperature. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. Within the limitations of this study, a bacterial cellulose membrane with 0. As a particular example, the mechanical bending behavior in the case of a physically motivated limitation of GND storage is studied.
professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017
FLIGHT PLANNING FOR FSX WITH PFPX
professional flight planner x 1.28 cracked 2017

Please select whether you prefer to view the MDPI pages with a view tailored for mobile displays or to view the MDPI pages in the normal scrollable desktop version. This selection will be stored into your cookies and used automatically in next visits. You can also change the view style at any point from the main header when using the pages with your mobile device. From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent polymers SAPs can be used in a plethora of applications.

The remaining challenges and potential solutions for SAP application in concrete have been addressed using both natural and synthetic SAPs. Abstract: The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

General corrosion rate was measured by weight loss tests. After tests, scanning electron microscope analysis was carried out to detect cracks and localized attacks. The results are discussed in relation with exposure conditions. They show very low corrosion rates strictly dependent upon time and temperature.

No stress corrosion cracking was observed on U-bend specimens, under constant loading. Small cracks confined in the necking cone of specimens prove that stress corrosion cracking only occurred during slow strain rate tests at stresses exceeding the yield strength. After the SPS process, dense AlN and TiB 2 composites with Nb 2O 5, Y 2O 3 and ZrO 2 were successfully prepared.

X-ray diffraction analysis showed that in the AlN composites, the addition of Nb 2O 5 gives rise to Nb 4N 3 during sintering. The compound Y 3Al 5O 12 YAG was observed as precipitate in the sample with Y 2O 3. X-ray diffraction analysis of the TiB 2 composites showed TiB 2 as a single phase in these materials. The maximum Vickers and toughness values were 14.

Abstract: This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads.

A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric.

The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching. The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe.

This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS. Abstract: A metal—insulator—metal structure resistive switching device based on H 0. The retention property had no degradation at 6 × 10 4 s. Combined with the conductance mechanism, the RS behaviors are attributed to joule heating and redox reactions in the HZO thin film induced by the external electron injection.

Abstract: This paper deals with the influence of selected methods mechanical and pneumatic as well as various factors wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing on 3D molding of veneers. Cracks and warping edges were also evaluated in selected groups of mechanical molding. Mechanical methods tested veneers with various treatments steaming, water and ammonia plasticizing and lamination.

The pneumatic method was based on veneer shaping using air pressure. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. The differences between the mechanical and pneumatic methods were not considerable. The most suitable method for mechanical 3D molding was the veneer lamination by polyethylene foils with thicknesses of 80 and 125 μm, inasmuch as these achieved better results than veneer plasticized by steam.

The occurrence of cracks was more frequent in beech veneers, whereas, edge warping occurred at similar rates for both wood species and depends rather on holding method during 3D molding. Use of the ammonia solution is more suitable and there occurs no marked increase in moisture as happens when soaking in water. Barrier membranes of 0. Mechanical strength was investigated, and new bone formation was evaluated through animal experimental studies.

Experimental animals were sacrificed after having 2 weeks and 8 weeks of recovery, and specimens were processed for histologic and histomorphometric analyses measuring the area of bone regeneration % using an image analysis program. In 2 weeks, bone-like materials and fibrous connective tissues were observed in histologic analysis. In 8 weeks, all experimental groups showed the arrangement of osteoblasts surrounding the supporting body on the margin and center of the bone defect region.

Within the limitations of this study, a bacterial cellulose membrane with 0. In this work, a ring oscillator based on n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide IGZO and p -type tin monoxide SnO is presented. The IGZO thin-film transistor TFT shows a linear mobility of 11. The SnO TFT exhibits a mobility of 0. The three-stage ring oscillator based on IGZO and SnO is able to operate at 2. The oxide-based complementary circuits, after further optimization of the operation voltage, may have wide applications in practical large-area flexible electronics.

The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization DRX characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model.

The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323—1423 K and strain rate range of 0. Abstract: In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells PEFCs , it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts.

Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments. The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated.

In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0.

However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts. Abstract: The catalyzing effect on nucleation of recrystallization from existing grains resulting from previous lower temperature deformation is analyzed, analogous to the size effect of foreign nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation.

Analytical formulation of the effective nucleation site for recrystallization leads to a negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size of metals. Non-isochronal annealing—where annealing time is set just enough for the completion of recrystallization at different temperatures—is conducted on pure copper after severe plastic deformation. More homogeneous and smaller grains are obtained at higher annealing temperature.

The good fit between analytical and experimental results unveils the intrinsic feature of this negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope SEM and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter.

Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity HRRI is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption OC calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry TC method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation.

HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ATR-FTIR , proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H-NMR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography GPC , thermogravimetric analysis TGA and differential scanning calorimetric DSC Techniques.

The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction XRD , atomic force microscopy AFM , Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS analyses.

An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition MIT characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared IR transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature T MIT deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry.

This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO 2-based smart windows. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the two compounds featured 3D supramolecular architectures constructed from noncovalent interactions, such as π···π stacking, C-H···π, C-H···O, C-Cl···π, C-H···Cl interactions. The thermogravimetric analysis and ESI-MS study of compounds 1 and 2 suggested that the Cr III complexes possessed good stability both in solid and solution.

In addition, the ultraviolet and fluorescence response of the HL 1 and HL 2 shown marked changes upon their complexation with Cr III ion, which indicated that the two 8-hydroxyquinolinate based ligand are promising heavy metal chelating agent for Cr 3+. Abstract: Herein, we describe three advanced techniques for cathodoluminescence CL spectroscopy that have recently been developed in our laboratories.

The first is a new method to accurately determine the CL-efficiency of thin layers of phosphor powders. To overcome this problem of charging, a comparison method has been developed, which enables accurate measurement of the current density of the electron beam.

The study of CL from phosphor specimens in a scanning electron microscope SEM is the second subject to be treated. A detailed description of a measuring method to determine the overall decay time of single phosphor crystals in a SEM without beam blanking is presented. The third technique is based on the unique combination of microscopy and spectrometry in the transmission electron microscope TEM of Brunel University London UK.

This combination enables the recording of CL-spectra of nanometre-sized specimens and determining spatial variations in CL emission across individual particles by superimposing the scanning TEM and CL-images.

Their flame retardant and thermal insulation properties were investigated. The vibrational modes, structure transformation, and Al coordination of crystalline, glassy, and molten states of KAl MoO 4 2 have been investigated by in-situ high temperature Raman scattering and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance MAS NMR spectroscopy, together with first principles density functional simulation of room temperature Raman spectrum.

The effect of K +, from ordered arrangement in the crystal to random distribution in the melt, on the local chemical environment of Al, was also revealed.

The distribution and quantitative analysis of different Al coordination subspecies are final discussed and found to be dependent on the thermal history of the glass samples. Abstract: Significant research has been performed on the challenge of improving thermoelectric materials, with maximum peak figure of merit, ZT, the most common target. We use an approximate thermoelectric material model, matched to real materials, to demonstrate that when an application is known, average ZT is a significantly better optimization target.

We quantify this difference with some examples, with one scenario showing that changing the doping to increase peak ZT by 19% can lead to a performance drop of 16%. The importance of average ZT means that the temperature at which the ZT peak occurs should be given similar weight to the value of the peak.

An ideal material for an application operates across the maximum peak ZT, otherwise maximum performance occurs when the peak value is reduced in order to improve the peak position. However, their clinical application was limited due to the too rapid degradation. In the study, hydroxyapatite HA was incorporated into Mg-Zn alloy via selective laser melting.

Results showed that the degradation rate slowed down due to the decrease of grain size and the formation of protective layer of bone-like apatite. Moreover, the grain size continually decreased with increasing HA content, which was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation and increased number of nucleation particles in the process of solidification. At the same time, the amount of bone-like apatite increased because HA could provide favorable areas for apatite nucleation.

Besides, HA also enhanced the hardness due to the fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, some pores occurred owing to the agglomerate of HA when its content was excessive, which decreased the biodegradation resistance. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties.

The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

The corrosion behavior of the hybrid coatings on HDGS was studied in chloride-contaminated simulated concrete pore solutions SCPS by polarization resistance measurements. The roughness of the HDGS coated with hybrids was also characterized by atomic force microscopy. The structural characterization of the hybrid materials proved the effective reaction between Jeffamine ® and 3-isocyanate propyltriethoxysilane ICPTES and indicated that the addition of TEOS does not seem to affect the organic structure or to increase the degree of condensation of the hybrid materials.

Despite the apparent lack of influence on the hybrids architecture, the polarization resistance measurements confirmed that TEOS addition improves the corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings U X :TEOS in chloride-contaminated SCPS when compared to samples prepared without any TEOS U X.

This behavior could be related to the decrease in roughness of the hybrid coatings due TEOS addition and to the different metal coating interaction resulting from the increase of the inorganic component in the hybrid matrix. Abstract: Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed.

An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer.

The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid PW—LDPE—SA. The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated.

Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material.

Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity. Abstract: Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability.

In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of maleic anhydride-modified xylan MAHX with N-isopropylacrylamide NIPAm and acrylic acid AA under UV irradiation to form MAHX- g-P NIPAm-co-AA hydrogels. The pore volume, the mechanical properties, and the release rate for drugs of hydrogels could be controlled by the degree of substitution of MAHX.

These hydrogels were characterized by swelling ability, lower critical solution temperature LCST , Fourier-transform infrared FTIR , and SEM. Furthermore, the cumulative release rate was investigated for acetylsalicylic acid and theophylline, as well as the cytocompatibility MAHX-based hydrogels. In vitro, the cumulative release rate of acetylsalicylic acid for MAHX-based hydrogels was higher than that for theophylline, and in the gastrointestinal sustained drug release study, the acetylsalicylic acid release rate was extremely slow during the initial 3 h in the gastric fluid 24.

The cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that MAHX-based hydrogels could promote cell proliferation and had satisfactory biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells.

These results indicated that MAHX-based hydrogels, as new drug carriers, had favorable behavior for intestinal-targeted drug delivery. Abstract: The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium D was investigated.

Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium H in H 2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction XRD , transmission electron microscopy TEM , energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS , fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance ESR were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material.

They indicated that the core phase YF 3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO 2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho 3+ single-doped YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material.

Results showed that the YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b RhB and 34. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved.

Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF 3:Ho 3+ TiO 2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material.

The CNT—Al 2O 3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al 2O 3 particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al 2O 3 particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT—Al 2O 3 hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K 1 C, compared to neat epoxy.

Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements SACRCs after storage in diverse media for up to one year. After polishing, specimens were immersed in a red wine RW ; b curry-solution CU ; c cress-solution CR ; and d distilled water DW at 37 °C and measured after 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365 days for color differences ΔE and water absorption WA. Non-aged specimens were used as baselines. After 365 days, all of the discs were polished and their ΔE was measured.

The significantly highest WA presented in SOC; the lowest showed in BEA. The highest ΔE decrease presented in BEA. Discoloration could not be removed completely by polishing. SACRCs need to be carefully selected for restorations in the esthetical zone with visible restoration margins. Polishing can significantly reduce the marginal discoloration. Abstract: Severe surface roughening during the hydroforming of aluminum alloy parts can produce surface defects that severely restrict their application in the automobile and aerospace industry.

To understand the relation between strain, grain size and surface roughness under biaxial stress conditions, hydro-bulging tests of aluminum alloy tubes were carried out, and the tubes with different grain sizes were prepared by a spinning and annealing process. The surface roughness was measured by a laser scanning confocal microscope to evaluate the surface roughening macroscopical behavior, and the corresponding microstructures were observed using electron back-scattered diffraction EBSD to reveal the roughening microscopic behavior.

The results obtained show that the surface roughness increased with both strain and grain size under biaxial stress. No surface defects were observed on the surface when the grain size was less than 105 μm if the strain was less than 18%, or when the grain size was between 130 and 175 μm if the strain was less than 15. The surface roughening microscopic behavior was identified as an inhomogeneous grain size distribution, which became more pronounced with increasing grain size and resulted in greater local deformation.

Concentrated grain orientation also results in severe inhomogeneous deformation during plastics deformation, and serious surface roughening. Abstract: The morphology and elemental composition of cross sections of eight historic copper materials have been explored. The materials were taken from copper roofs installed in different middle and northern European environments from the 16th to the 19th century.

All copper substrates contain inclusions of varying size, number and composition, reflecting different copper ores and production methods. The largest inclusions have a size of up to 40 μm, with most inclusions in the size ranging between 2 and 10 μm. The most common element in the inclusions is O, followed by Pb, Sb and As. Minor elements include Ni, Sn and Fe. All historic patinas exhibit quite fragmentized bilayer structures, with a thin inner layer of cuprite Cu 2O and a thicker outer one consisting mainly of brochantite Cu 4SO 4 OH 6.

The extent of patina fragmentation seems to depend on the size of the inclusions, rather than on their number and elemental composition. The larger inclusions are electrochemically nobler than the surrounding copper matrix. This creates micro-galvanic effects resulting both in a profound influence on the homogeneity and morphology of historic copper patinas and in a significantly increased ratio of the thicknesses of the brochantite and cuprite layers.

The results suggest that copper patinas formed during different centuries exhibit variations in uniformity and corrosion protection ability. Particular focus is on the role of geometrically necessary dislocations GNDs during bending-dominated load conditions and their impact on the characteristic bending size effect. Three different sample sizes are considered in this work with main variation in thickness.

A gradient extended crystal plasticity model is presented and applied in a three-dimensional finite-element FE framework considering slip system-based edge and screw components of the dislocation density vector. The underlying mathematical model contains non-standard evolution equations for GNDs, crystal-specific interaction relations, and higher-order boundary conditions. Moreover, two element formulations are examined and compared with respect to size-independent as well as size-dependent bending behavior.

The first formulation is based on a linear interpolation of the displacement and the GND density field together with a full integration scheme whereas the second is based on a mixed interpolation scheme.

While the GND density fields are treated equivalently, the displacement field is interpolated quadratically in combination with a reduced integration scheme. Computational results indicate that GND storage in small cantilever beams strongly influences the evolution of statistically stored dislocations SSDs and, hence, the distribution of the total dislocation density.

As a particular example, the mechanical bending behavior in the case of a physically motivated limitation of GND storage is studied. The resulting impact on the mechanical bending response as well as on the predicted size effect is analyzed. Obtained results are discussed and related to experimental findings from the literature. Abstract: The dynamic behaviour of a machine tool MT directly influences the machining performance. The adoption of lightweight structures may reduce the effects of undesired vibrations and increase the workpiece quality.

This paper aims to present and compare a set of hybrid materials that may be excellent candidates to fabricate the MT moving parts. The selected materials have high dynamic characteristics and capacity to dampen mechanical vibrations.

In this way, starting from the kinematic model of a milling machine, this study evaluates a number of prototypes made of Al foam sandwiches AFS , Al corrugated sandwiches ACS and composite materials reinforced by carbon fibres CFRP. These prototypes represented the Z-axis ram of a commercial milling machine.

The static and dynamical properties have been analysed by using both finite element FE simulations and experimental tests. The obtained results show that the proposed structures may be a valid alternative to the conventional materials of MT moving parts, increasing machining performance. In particular, the AFS prototype highlighted a damping ratio that is 20 times greater than a conventional ram e. Its application is particularly suitable to minimize unwanted oscillations during high-speed finishing operations.

The results also show that the CFRP structure guarantees high stiffness with a weight reduced by 48. The ACS structure has a good trade-off between stiffness and damping and may represent a further alternative, if correctly evaluated.

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